By Bernadette K. Drummond, Nicola Kilpatrick
Defective improvement of enamel teeth or dentin is an important dental challenge for kids and teenagers in a variety of respects, and dentists and different oral medical experts locate dealing with those difficulties hard and demanding. whereas a large amount of proper examine is at present being undertaken, a lot extra research is required. This publication discusses the recognized motives of faulty dental teeth and explains why it's so tough to revive. most significantly, it provides the signs that let exact prognosis and files the easiest modern administration. the total variety of the teeth defects is taken into account, together with defects in fundamental enamel and everlasting the teeth, linked syndromes, molar incisor hypomineralization, and genetic defects. The scientific chapters are good illustrated, offering transparent guidance for every process. additionally, avenues for destiny learn are pointed out, with rationalization in their rationale.
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Extra resources for Planning and Care for Children and Adolescents with Dental Enamel Defects: Etiology, Research and Contemporary Management
4 and 5. Environmental Factors Several environmental factors have been associated with DDE. These are believed to cause systemic disturbances that affect enamel development rather than the environmental agent affecting the ameloblasts directly. Environmental agents such as lead, mercury, bisphenol A (an endocrine-disrupting chemical), some drugs such as anticancer agents and tetracycline and some trace elements including fluoride and strontium have been implicated in DDE. The systemic ingestion of these chemical substances may exert an adverse effect on enamel formation during and after fetal development [45, 46].
64. Lawson BF, Stout FW, Ahern DE, Sneed WD. The incidence of enamel hypoplasia associated with chronic pediatric lead poisoning. S C Dent J. 1971;29(11):5–10. 65. Fouda N, Caracatsanis M, Hammarstrom L. Developmental disturbances of the rat molar induced by two diphosphonates. Adv Dent Res. 1989;3(2):234–40. 66. Jan J, Vrbic V. Polychlorinated biphenyls cause developmental enamel defects in children. Caries Res. 2000;34(6):469–73. 67. Minicucci EM, Lopes LF, Crocci AJ. Dental abnormalities in children after chemotherapy treatment for acute lymphoid leukemia.
In Swedish children born in 1990 . Most studies show an equal distribution of MIH between sexes [26, 55, 71] and, although Leppäniemi et al.  found a predisposition for MIH in the upper jaw, most studies fail to show any quadrant predilection for MIH defects [9, 26, 68, 71]. Prevalence of HSPM Compared with MIH, there are very few prevalence studies on HSPM. 0 %. HSPM is also equally distributed between sexes and arches . 4) . Even relatively mild expressions of HSPM increase the chances of future MIH (Fig.