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Additional info for Pioneering Venus : a planet unveiled
When uncertainty is used in defining semantic proximity, (Kashyap and Sheth, 1993) uses fuzzy functions as first introduced in (Zadeh, 1978). Essentially, the idea is to replace intuitive assignments of certainty measures with a less intuitive approach that is based on the more encompassing semantic proximity assertions. It is still a user-defined function, but one that uses more objective criteria for the assignment of a certainty value. , 1996) (Navathe and Savasere, 1996) (Bertino and Illarramendi, 1996).
Semantic relationships they identify include: semantic equivalence, semantic relationship, semantic relevance, and semantic resemblance. These relationships are influenced by the values taken by the context and schema correspondences. They define the concept of the semantic proximity between two objects as a 4-tuple < Context, Abstraction, (D}1 D2), (8}, 82) > where Dj denotes a domain and Sj denotes a state. The meaning of each component is as follows: • Context - the context is defined as a semantic similarity between two objects.
Another way to define the context is to consider the relationship an object is involved in. Still another type of context is the one defined by the federated schema. Obviously, representing context is an open research issue and further investigation is needed (Sheth and Kashyap, 1993). • Abstraction - an abstraction denotes the process of mapping domains of objects. For instance, one type of abstraction is the one-to-one mapping that maps a value from one domain to a value in another domain. Another type of abstraction is the generalization mapping where a domain of values is a generalization of another.