By G. Paschmann, C. P. Escoubet, S. J. Schwartz, S. E. Haaland (auth.), G. Paschmann, S. J. Schwartz, C. P. Escoubet, S. Haaland (eds.)
When the move of plasma emitted from the solar (the sunlight wind) encounters Earth's magnetic box, it slows down and flows round it, abandoning a hollow space, the magnetosphere. The magnetopause is the outside that separates the sunlight wind at the outdoor from the Earth's magnetic box at the within. as the sun wind strikes at supersonic pace, a bow surprise needs to shape prior to the magnetopause that acts to sluggish the sun wind to subsonic speeds. Magnetopause, bow surprise and their environs are wealthy in fascinating methods in collisionless plasmas, resembling surprise formation, magnetic reconnection, particle acceleration and wave-particle interactions. they're attention-grabbing of their personal correct, as a part of Earth's surroundings, but in addition simply because they're prototypes of comparable constructions and phenomena which are ubiquitous within the universe, having the original virtue that they're available to in situ measurements. the limits of the magnetosphere were the objective of direct in-situ measurements because the starting of the distance age. yet simply because they're always relocating, altering their orientation, and present process evolution, the translation of single-spacecraft measurements has been laid low with the elemental lack of ability of a unmarried observer to unambiguously distinguish spatial from temporal adjustments. the bounds are therefore a major aim for the learn by means of a heavily spaced fleet of spacecraft. therefore the Cluster venture, with its 4 spacecraft in a three-d configuration at variable separation distances, represents an enormous breakthrough. the current twentieth quantity of the ISSI area technology sequence represents the 1st synthesis of the interesting new effects received within the first few years of the Cluster mission.
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Extra resources for Outer Magnetospheric Boundaries: Cluster Results
Pickett, J. -J. Chen, S. W. Kahler, O. Santolik, D. A. Gurnett, B. T. Tsurutani, and A. Balogh: 2004, ‘Isolated electrostatic structures observed through the Cluster orbit: Relationship to magnetic ﬁeld strength’. Ann. Geophys. 22, 2515–2523. Pokhotelov, O. , R. Z. Sagdeev, M. A. Balikhin, and R. A. Treumann: 2004, ‘The mirror instability at ﬁnite ion-Larmor radius wavelengths’. J. Geophys. Res. 1029/2004JA010568. : 2002, ‘Ulysees observations of magnetic clouds in the 3-D heliosphere’. Thesis/dissertation, Imperial College, University of London.
M. Neugebauer, B. Goldstein, and E. J. Smith: 1994, ‘Ulysses ﬁeld and plasma observations of magnetic holes in the solar wind and their relation to mirror-mode structures’. J. Geophys. Res. 99, 23371–23381. Chapter 2 The Foreshock J. P. Eastwood1 , E. A. Lucek2 , C. Mazelle3 , K. Meziane4 , Y. Narita5 , J. Pickett6 , and R. A. 1 Introduction Although collisionless shocks primarily exist to mediate the ﬂow of supermagnetosonic plasma, they also act as sites for particle acceleration. It is now well known that for certain magnetic ﬁeld geometries, a portion of the inﬂowing plasma returns to the upstream region rather than being processed by the shock and passing irreversibly downstream.
Batchelor, G. : 1970, Theory of Homogeneous Turbulence. New York: Cambridge University Press. , R. A. Treumann, E. Georgescu, G. -H. Fornac¸on, and U. Auster: 1999, ‘Waveform and packet structure of lion roars’. Ann. Geophys. 17, 1528–1534. , M. Andre, S. D. Bale, J. S. Pickett, C. A. Cattell, E. Lucek, and A. Balogh: 2004, ‘Solitary structures associated with Short Large-Amplitude Magnetic Structures (SLAMS) upstream of the Earth’s quasi-parallel bow shock’. Geophys. Res. Lett. 1029/2004GL019524.