By Jacques I. Pankove
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All the transition elements seem to form deep levels. The reasons for which certain impurities form a deep level are not yet completely understood. 1-C Band Tailing While impurity-band formation is an obvious consequence of increased impurity concentration, another important effect occurs: a perturbation of the bands by the formation of tails of states extending the bands into the energy gap. The problem of band tailing has received much theoretical attention. 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 An ionized donor exerts an attractive force on the conduction electrons and a repulsive force on the valence holes (acceptors act conversely).
1-F States in Semiconducting Alloys When an alloy is made of two semiconductors, it is expected that the energy gap of the alloy will assume a value intermediate between the gaps of the two pure semiconductors and that the gap will vary in proportion to the composition. However, the rate of change of the energy gap with composition depends on the nature of the lowest conduction-band valley. 28 Relative to the top of the valence band, the 〈111〉 valleys move to higher energies with increasing Si-concentration faster than the 〈100〉 valleys (Fig.
The different rates and signs of the pressure dependences of each valley can cause the energy gap to go through a maximum or a minimum at sufficiently high pressures. 39 This is readily understood on the basis that while the set of 〈111〉 valleys moves to higher energies, the set of <100> valleys moves to lower energies. At 50 kbars the bottoms of both sets of valleys would be at the same potential. 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50 In GaAs the direct valley of the conduction band moves to higher potentials faster than the indirect valley.