By Dr. Radomír Čihák DrSc. (auth.)
The objective of the current booklet is to summarize the result of reports of ontogenesis of the skeleton and muscle tissues of the human hand and foot. Our fundamental curiosity in learning the muscle tissues arose from observations of diversifications, during which a brand new type of the anomalous muscle within the popliteal fossa have been defined (Cihak, 1954; Hnevkovsky and Cihak, 1957) and within which adjustments of muscle types within the congenitally malformed extremity had additionally been studied (Brlickova and Cihak, 1956). the will to explain muscle adaptations by way of the onto genesis ended in a learn of ontogenesis of unmarried muscle tissues. in the course of remark of the embryonic pectoralis significant specified muscle bundles have been basically saw, that could be homologised with the sphincter colli muscle of decrease Mammals. extra statement published that this muscle (concordantly with its phylo genetic improvement) steadily develops during human ontogenesis from a small primordium to its maximal quantity and turns into lowered thereafter and at last disappears, nonetheless throughout the embryonic interval (Cihak, 1957). This examine used to be decisive for the extra improvement of our subject matter, because it demonstra tes, how continually within the improvement of the locomotor equipment the rule of thumb of recapitulation is said and the way this is hired in developmental experiences of muscles.
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Additional resources for Ontogenesis of the Skeleton and Intrinsic Muscles of the Human Hand and Foot
In the course of ontogenesis in the human temporary form changes of the distal radius end are visible suggesting its rearrangement. Ontogenesis of the Skeleton and Intrinsic Muscles of Human Hand and Foot 39 2. The ulnare is homologous with the ulnar styloid process; this corresponds with Holmgren's and Kindahl's concept. During ontogenesis this is manifested by a temporary large styloid process, formed and sized similarly to other carpalia, which then becomes reduced. 3. The scaphoideum originates by fusion of two centralia.
Moreover, in the course of human ontogenesis we did not succeed in finding a separate rudimentary prehallux. But at the tibial tarsus margin rudimentary adjoint tarsal primordia are found developing differently from neighbouring elements. In place of the future naviculare tuberosity an unclosed perichondrium with tissue condensation appears as a less distinct primordium, in embryos of C-R length 18 mm. The next similar formation is the plantar part of the first cuneiform (this cuneiform is divided into two parts in small embryos).
Rajtova (1967) demonstrated two scaphoideum primordia in the guinea-pig but claimed no homologies. O'Rahilly (1954) and Olivier (1962) observed the fusion of the centrale normale with the scaphoideum in the course of human ontogenesis. During ontogenesis we see the basal scaphoideum anlage always solid, without any suggestion of two parts. ) that the scaphoideum cannot correspond to the radiale, since the later is taken into the distal radius end contacted by the scaphoideum, we can only consider the homology of the scaphoid to be one of the centralia of the second collateral ray.