By Imed Zitouni
Research in common Language Processing (NLP) has quickly complex lately, leading to fascinating algorithms for classy processing of textual content and speech in a number of languages. a lot of this paintings makes a speciality of English; during this publication we tackle one other workforce of attention-grabbing and difficult languages for NLP examine: the Semitic languages. The Semitic team of languages comprises Arabic (206 million local speakers), Amharic (27 million), Hebrew (7 million), Tigrinya (6.7 million), Syriac (1 million) and Maltese (419 thousand). Semitic languages express exact morphological approaches, not easy syntactic buildings and diverse different phenomena which are much less frequent in different usual languages. those demanding situations demand distinctive options, lots of that are defined during this book.
The thirteen chapters provided during this e-book compile major scientists from numerous universities and study institutes around the world. whereas this ebook devotes a few awareness to state of the art algorithms and strategies, its basic goal is an intensive explication of top practices within the box. moreover, each bankruptcy describes how the thoughts mentioned observe to Semitic languages. The publication covers either statistical techniques to NLP, that are dominant throughout a number of functions these days and the extra conventional, rule-based techniques, that have been confirmed worthwhile for a number of different program domain names. we are hoping that this e-book will offer a "one-stop-shop'' for all of the needful heritage and functional recommendation while construction NLP functions for Semitic languages.
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Additional info for Natural Language Processing of Semitic Languages
Fabri et al. 1 Orthography Unlike Arabic, Hebrew, and Syriac, Amharic is written using a syllabic writing system, one originally developed for the extinct Ethiopian Semitic language Ge’ez and later extended for Amharic and other Ethiopian Semitic languages [18, 65]. 5 Amharic has 26 consonant phonemes, 27 if we count the /v/ that is used in foreign loan-words, and 7 vowels. For four of the consonants (/’/, /h/, /s/, and /s’/), the writing system makes distinctions that existed in Ge’ez but have been lost in Amharic.
Resumptive pronouns are obligatory as complements of prepositions and as possessors. When the resumptive pronoun is preceded by a preposition, and opens the relative clause, the relativizer may be omitted. 5 Maltese Maltese belongs to the South Arabic branch of Central Semitic [46, 47]. It has an Arabic stratum, a Romance (Sicilian, Italian) superstratum and an English adstratum [12,30]. The influence of the non-Semitic element is most obvious in the lexis, while the most salient basic grammatical structures are of Arabic origin.
Additionally, Arabic uses two morphophonemic letters: „ is the Ta-Marbuta, feminine ending morpheme, and is the Alif-Maqsura, derivational marker of the word’s root radical y realizing as the vowel [a]. , variants of Hamzated Alif, Â or A, without their Hamza ( ’ ): A ; and the Alif-Maqsura (or dotless Ya) ý and the regular dotted Ya y are often used interchangeably in word final position . 2 Morphology In discussing Arabic morphology, it is useful to distinguish between operations related to the type or form of the morphological process as opposed to its function [40, 68].