Metal Impurities in Silicon-Device Fabrication by Klaus Graff

By Klaus Graff

Metal Impurities in Silicon-Device Fabrication treats the transition-metal impurities generated in the course of silicon pattern and equipment fabrication. the several mechanisms accountable for infection are mentioned, and a survey given in their impression on equipment functionality. the categorical houses of major and infrequent impurities in silicon are tested, in addition to the detection equipment and requisites in smooth know-how. eventually, impurity gettering is studied in addition to smooth ideas to figure out gettering potency. In all of those matters, trustworthy and up to date info are awarded. The monograph presents a radical overview of the result of fresh clinical investigations, in addition to of the proper information and homes of some of the steel impurities in silicon.

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4) where (fo is the value listed. 5. ) energy levels of substitutional manganese [e V] Charge st. Exp. 12] Theor. 43 Acceptor D. acceptor ... 22 Concentr. (exp) [cm- 3 ] 1013 + 1014 10 13 + 1014 D. 22: Distance to valence (+) / conduction (-) band edge The three dots (... 1. 1]. 12]. 13] by applying co-diffusion of copper and manganese. From the five levels observed, three (one donor and two acceptors) were attributed to copper, and the remaining two levels were attributed to substitutional manganese.

044eV). Therefore, the donor state of the iron is positively charged and the acceptor state of the boron is negatively charged. While the substitutional boron atom is immobile at RT, the interstitial iron atom is able to diffuse through the silicon lattice and will occasionally approach a boron atom. Opposite-charge states attract one another and form an iron-boron pair. The reaction is diffusion limited and highly dependent on the boron concentration in the sample, since this determines the mean distance between iron and boron atoms.

3, evaporates at the sample surface and there- fore avoids back-diffusion. , during a preceding diffusion in a closed ampoule or by ion implantation will quantitatively diffuse out of the sample during the HT processes. Mercury is another metal exhibiting a very high vapor pressure and therefore reacts in the same manner as zinc. Only fast-diffusing transition metals will diffuse to the sample surfaces where they form precipitates. Because of this outdiffusion, denuded zones remain beneath both surfaces which correspond to the denuded zones obtained by internal gettering pre-annealing where the oxygen has been diffused out of the sample before precipitation of the oxygen takes place.

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