By National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Water Science and Technology Board, Board on Earth Sciences and Resources, Committee on Earth Resources, Committee on Management and Effects of Coalbed Methane Development and Produced Water i
In a few coalbeds, obviously happening water strain holds methane--the major portion of common gas--fixed to coal surfaces and in the coal. In a coalbed methane (CBM) good, pumping water from the coalbeds lowers this strain, facilitating the discharge of methane from the coal for extraction and use as an strength resource. Water pumped from coalbeds in this process--CBM 'produced water'--is controlled via a few blend of remedy, disposal, garage, or use, topic to compliance with federal and nation regulations.
CBM produced water administration may be difficult for regulatory enterprises, CBM good operators, water remedy businesses, coverage makers, landowners, and the general public due to variations within the caliber and volume of produced water; to be had infrastructure; expenses to regard, shop, and shipping produced water; and states' criminal attention of water and produced water. a few states think of produced water as waste, while others think about it a worthwhile byproduct of methane construction. hence, even though present applied sciences enable CBM produced water to be taken care of to any wanted water caliber, the vast majority of CBM produced water is almost immediately being disposed of a minimum of price instead of positioned to worthwhile use.
This e-book in particular examines the Powder River, San Juan, Raton, Piceance, and Uinta CBM basins within the states of Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah. The conclusions and suggestions determine gaps in information and data, power useful makes use of of CBM produced water and linked expenses, and demanding situations within the latest regulatory framework.
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Additional info for Management and effects of coalbed methane produced water in the western United States
B) Northwest-southeast 26 Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. eps the Fort Union Formation, and the overlying Wasatch Formation. Although oil and gas production began bitmap in the Powder River Basin in the 1920s, the first CBM well was not drilled there until the late 1980s (in the Wyoming portion of the basin). By the end of 2008, approximately 18,000 CBM wells were extracting methane from the Tongue River and Lebo Shale members of the Fort Union Formation, mostly at shallow depths ranging from approximately 450 to 4,500 feet (USGS, 2005).
Water moving in the aquifer is assumed to move as “packets” or ”plugs” in pipeflow fashion from an area of recharge to an area of discharge. eps incorrect estimates of ages for the water. Therefore, dating is considered realistic for most bitmap cases in which groundwater is “dated” using isotopes. SOURCE: Bethke and Johnson (2008). © 2008 by Annual Reviews, Inc. Reproduced by permission of Annual Reviews. to become systematically “lighter” from low to high latitudes. In other words, groundwater at high latitudes will have greater proportions of 16O relative to 18O than does groundwater at lower latitudes.
The plant matter formed either within alluvial systems of streams, lakes, and peat swamps, all of non-marine origin (northern Rocky Mountain area of the United States), or behind barrier islands and in back bays, lagoons, and deltas along the midcontinental seaway with waters of marine or 19 Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Management and Effects of Coalbed Methane Produced Water in the United States C O A L B E D M E T H A N E P R O D U C E D WAT E R I N T H E W E S T E R N U .