By John L. Bell, David DeVidi, Graham Solomon

*Logical Options* introduces the extensions and possible choices to classical common sense that are so much mentioned within the philosophical literature: many-sorted common sense, second-order common sense, modal logics, intuitionistic good judgment, three-valued common sense, fuzzy good judgment, and loose good judgment. each one good judgment is brought with a short description of a few point of its philosophical importance, and anywhere attainable semantic and facts tools are hired to facilitate comparability of a few of the platforms. The e-book is designed to be important for philosophy scholars philosophers who've realized a few classical first-order common sense and want to know about different logics vital to their philosophical paintings.

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**Extra resources for Logical Options: An Introduction to Classical and Alternative Logics**

**Example text**

11. Two different interpretations of fallibilism should be distinguished (ignoring the trivially true view that humans make mistakes in their attempts to know). The first is the doctrine that mathematical knowledge is or may be false. This implies that absolute true/false judgements about mathematical knowledge claims can be made, that is, there is absolute truth, but mathematics may fail to attain it. The second version rejects the assumption that absolute judgements regarding truth/falsity and correctness/incorrectness can be made, on the grounds that the relevant criteria and definitions, including the rules of truth and proof, change and will never attain a final state.

Mathematical concepts, definitions, theorems, proofs, theories, and proofstandards grow, change, and are sometimes abandoned with the passage of time, as standards of rigor and proof change. Thus their "objectivity" is actually intersubjectivity, is time and community dependent, and is rooted in historical continuity and tradition. An absolutist response is to deny that rationality and logic depend on humanity and to rule out as illegitimate to philosophy the empirical fact that the standards of rationality and logic do change, and have changed.

This second argument also addresses (critiques) the position derived by withdrawing the epistemological assumptions concerning the truth of the foundation. First, there is the justificatory basis of the foundation of mathematical knowledge to consider. Lakatos (1978b), developing Popper's (1959, 1979) general epistemological argument, shows that the quest for certainty in mathematics leads inevitably to a vicious cycle. Any mathematical system depends on a set of assumptions, and trying to establish their certainty by proving them leads to infinite regression.