By Jean-Pierre Descy, François Darchambeau, Martin Schmid
In the guts of Africa, a special lake draws the eye of scientists because the starting of the 20 th century. on the foot of the Virunga volcano chain, Lake Kivu harbors an enormous quantity of dissolved carbon dioxide and methane, making this lake the main harmful lake on the earth. however the lake furnishes additionally many items and prone for surrounding populations and will quickly develop into crucial power provider within the zone. initially of gasoline exploitation, the time has come for accumulating the massive quantity of clinical details received in the course of previous and current examine on Lake Kivu. The 11 chapters conceal many features of the physics, geochemistry and biology of the lake, with a selected specialize in the original actual and geochemical positive factors of the water column and at the ecological functioning of the outside waters. The affects of the brought fish species and the capability affects of methane exploitation also are summarized. This multi-disciplinary booklet can also be used as an creation to the limnology and biogeochemistry of huge tropical lakes, because it covers a number of elements of the physics, geochemistry, biology and ecology of the African nice Rift lakes.
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Additional info for Lake Kivu: Limnology and biogeochemistry of a tropical great lake
1) were characterized by a similar gradual increase with depth and an abrupt change at the major chemocline at 255–262 m. Chemical profiles were remarkably similar regardless of location and sampling time, which is consistent with the long residence time in the stratified layers (Chap. 2). The horizontal homogeneity was confirmed by vertical salinity profiles from different locations in Lake Kivu’s basins, except Kabuno Bay and Bukavu Bay. Concentration profiles in the permanently stratified zone remain almost constant over time scales of decades.
The surface mixed layer SiO2 budget reveals that the inputs (50,300 t Si year−1) are 45% higher than the outputs (34,700 t Si year−1). We can explain this difference by either: (1) an overestimation of the riverine input, (2) an underestimation of the outflow, or (3) an underestimated gross sedimentation. Dissolved reactive Si concentrations in inflowing rivers stay remarkably constant throughout the year, thus the extrapolated Si load is probably well estimated. The riverine inflow of biogenic silica (BSi) is probably low due to turbid water and short residence times and was therefore ignored.
The P supply of the surface mixed layer thus controls primary production. N is co-limiting mainly during the rainy season (Chap. 5). Internal recycling dominates P and N supply to the surface mixed layer. The remaining external inputs (Muvundja et al. 2009) represent only ~15% of the total inputs of dissolved P (Fig. 3) and ~20% of dissolved N (Fig. 4). The internal recycling is driven by subaquatic inflows, which push the lake water upwards, delivering nutrients to the epilimnion. In other tropical lakes, such as Malawi and Tanganyika, upward fluxes are also the main inputs to the epilimnion (Hecky et al.