By E.E. Shelp
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Extra info for Justice and Health Care (Philosophy and Medicine)
The liberal scientific and evolutionary interpretation of early human history, however, gave way in the earlier twentieth century to a renewed nationalistic emphasis which was accompanied by a divorce of archaeological from anthropological thought. Prehistory (in Germany often termed Urgeschichte, to stress its continuity with historical peoples) was interpreted either in terms of the migrations of particular peoples, or the diffusion of culture from centres such as Egypt. Anthropology turned from historical reconstruction to firsthand observation and description, with an interest in functionalist interpretations.
For a number of reasons ranging from the pursuit of exotica to the need to administer empires, anthropology paved the way for direct observation and interaction between European observers and the societies involved. It was direct and intimate contact, leading to the development of the methods of participant observation, by anthropologists such as B. Malinowski, A. R. Radcliffe-Brown and E. E. Evans-Pritchard that overturned the evolutionary perspective and ~ led to a rejection of notions of progress in human societies.
1967: Rehearsalfor Destruction. Poliakov, L. 1965-85: History ofAntisemitism,4 vols. Pulzer, P. 1988: The Rise of Political Anti-Semitism in Germany and Austria, 2nd edn. 24 ARCHAEOLOGY AND PREHISTORY Weinberg, M. 1986: Because They WereJews: a History of Antisemitism. Wistrich, R. 1991: Antisemitism:the Longest Hatred. TULIUS CARLEBACH Archaeology and prehistory Both these disciplines the study of the human past through its material remains, and the part of the subject concerned with the period before written records are relatively recent.