Introduction to Earth and Planetary System Science: New View by Naotatsu Shikazono

By Naotatsu Shikazono

This booklet provides simple details on fabric technology (geochemistry, geophysics, geology, mineralogy, etc.), interplay among subsystem consisting earth process (atmosphere, hydrosphere, litho (geo) sphere, biosphere, people) and in earth-planet method and evolution of earth-planetary approach. The nature-humans interactions are defined and new view in the world, planets and people (integration of anthropocentrism and naturecentrism) are presented.

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Representative sedimentary rocks include conglomerate, sandstone, siltstone, and mudstone. Sediments are classified into gravel, boulders, cobbles, pebbles, sand, silt, mud, and clay according to their grain size. The sedimentary rocks form from the sediments. The other representative sedimentary rocks are limestone from shells and coral reefs, mainly composed of calcium carbonate (CaCO3, calcite), chert mainly composed of silica (SiO2, quartz) from diatoms and radiolarian, and evaporite. ) Sediments being buried is associated with the dissolution and precipitation of minerals and compaction of the sediments, which reduces their porosity.

1 The dominant chemical state of carbon is different in different reservoirs. It is CO2 in the atmosphere, organic carbon in the biosphere, HCO3− in seawater, and carbonates and carbon in the geosphere. Dominant reactions causing the transfer of carbon between reservoirs are (1) photosynthetic reactions, (2) carbon oxidation– reduction reactions, and (3) reactions between minerals and aqueous solutions. These reactions can be expressed as the following: photosynthesis, CO2 + H2O → CH2O + O2; respiration decomposition of organic matter, CH2O + O2 → CO2 + H2O; dissolution of calcite, CaCO3 + 2 H+ → Ca2+ + CO2 + H2O; dissolution of dolomite, CaMg(CO3)2 + 2 H+ → Ca2+ + Mg2+ + 2HCO3−; dissolution of wollastonite, CaSiO3 + 2CO2 + H2O → Ca2+ + 2HCO3− + SiO2; and dissolution of Mg-pyroxene (MgSiO), MgSiO3 + 2CO2 + H2O → Mg2+ + 2HCO3− + SiO2.

The aquatic system is subdivided into freshwater systems forests, rivers, lakes, and coasts and marine systems (open and coastal oceans). The characteristics of each ecological system, its diversity, the influence of human activity, and interactions with other subsystems are different. 5 Chapter Summary 1. Earth’s structure is characterized by vertical zones and is divided into the atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere and biosphere. 2. ) and frozen water (ice sheets and ice glaciers). 3. The earth’s interior structure was determined mainly from seismic wave velocity data.

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