By Shlomi Dinar
As call for for clean water rises, including inhabitants, water shortage already good points at the nationwide safeguard time table of many countries. In this publication, Dinardevelops a concept to provide an explanation for options to estate rights conflicts over shared rivers. via systematic research of accessible treaty texts, corresponding side-payment and cost-sharing styles are gleaned. Geographic and fiscal variables are used to give an explanation for habitual estate rights results. instead of targeting a selected river or specific geographic zone, the ebook analyzes a variety of rivers, dictated via the big variety of treaty observations, and is ready to try a number of hypotheses, devising basic conclusions concerning the demeanour within which states get to the bottom of their water disputes. coverage implications are thereby additionally won. whereas the publication concurrently considers clash and cooperation alongside foreign rivers, it's the concentrate on negotiated agreements, and their embodied side-payment and cost-sharing regimes, that justifies using specific self reliant variables.
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Additional resources for International Water Treaties: Negotiation and Cooperation Along Transboundary Rivers (Routledge Studies in the Modern World Economy)
As in the Colorado River case, the Mekong riparians linked water to other issues they could benefit from, which facilitated the cooperative outcome. Finally, Turkey and Syria relied on linkage in their 1987 Agreement over the Euphrates River. According to Elhance, Turkey guaranteed a minimum flow to Syria in exchange for the latter’s concessions on border issues that ranged from the smuggling of illegal arms and narcotics to infiltration into Turkey by separatist groups – primarily the Kurdistan Workers Party or PKK (Elhance 1999: 143).
In obtaining their results for the relationship between conflict and river geography, these authors find that all three configurations are significant and have a positive relationship with interstate militarized disputes. But they go on to point out that the “upstream/downstream” relationship is indeed the most conflict-prone type (given their coefficients), with the “mixed” and the “river border” relationships, in that order, less prone to conflict (Toset et al. 2000: 989–90). LeMarquand (1977) presents perhaps the first analysis that speculates about the relationship between different river geographies and the potential for conflict and cooperation over a shared water body.
Countries may suffer from scarcity in water supply, energy, flood prevention facilities or pollution control and may be, therefore, inclined to exploit an international river. In arid regions, for example, countries may utilize the waters of their shared rivers for domestic water consumption. Water scarcity may then be exemplified in the periodic shortages a nation may experience that, in turn, may be intensified by the conflicting uses to which its neighbors have put the river. Falkenmark has argued that environmental stress results when the population grows large in relation to the water supply derived from the global water cycle.