By V. Ganapathy
Choked with over 225 boiler/HRSG operation and layout difficulties, this publication covers steam turbines and similar structures utilized in strategy crops, refineries, chemical crops, electric utilities, and different business settings. Emphasizing the thermal engineering elements, the writer offers info at the layout and function of steam turbines and warmth restoration boilers. He is helping these curious about improvement comprehend which inquiries to ask while deciding on a steam generator for his or her undertaking. The e-book comprises many straightforward to exploit calculations and successfully explains the speculation in the back of the layout and function of every kind of boilers, superheaters and economizers together with forte boilers.
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Additional resources for Industrial Boilers and Heat Recovery Steam Generators: Design, Applications, and Calculations
Using Secondary Surfaces Because single-pressure HRSGs are not very efﬁcient, one may consider adding secondary surfaces such as as a deaerator coil or condensate heater or a heat exchanger as shown in Fig. 18 to lower the stack gas temperature. Multiple-Pressure HRSGs Before going into this option, one should clearly understand when multiplepressure options are justiﬁed. From the discussion on HRSG simulation, it can be seen that the exit gas temperature in an HRSG depends on the steam pressure and temperature.
Additional performance calculations may also be done for intermediate steam generation values. 10 presents the total fuel required for a given total steam output and shows the split between the boiler and HRSG steam generation. It is obvious that the HRSG should be used ﬁrst to make any additional steam, because its fuel utilization is the best. However, if for some reason we cannot operate the HRSG, then information on how the total fuel consumption varies with the loading of each type of boiler helps in planning.
In cogeneration plants, saturated steam is often imported from other boilers to the HRSG to be superheated; steam may also be exported from the HRSG to other plants. Combined cycle plant HRSGs often operate at steady loads, cogeneration plant steam demand often ﬂuctuates and is a function of the process. Given below is an example of an HRSG simulation in a cogeneration plant. Note the effect on steam temperature with and without the export steam. Example 2 Exhaust gas ﬂow from a gas turbine is 250,000 lb=h at 1000 F.