Hot Embossing: Theory and Technology of Microreplication by Matthias Worgull

By Matthias Worgull

This booklet is an outline of replication expertise for micro- and nanostructures, concentrating on the techniques and expertise of sizzling embossing, a scaleable and multi-purpose know-how for the manufacture of units reminiscent of BioMEMS and microfluidic units that are anticipated to revolutionize quite a lot of clinical and business procedures over the arrival decade.

The sizzling embossing technique for replicating microstructures was once constructed by way of the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Karlsruhe Institute of expertise) the place the writer is head of the Nanoreplication staff. Worgull fills a niche in present details by way of absolutely detailing the know-how and methods of sizzling embossing.  He additionally covers nanoimprinting, a method on the topic of scorching embossing, with examples of tangible study issues and new functions in nanoreplication.

*A sensible and theoretical consultant to choosing the fabrics, equipment and procedures keen on microreplication utilizing sizzling embossing techniques.

*Compares assorted replication approaches corresponding to: micro injection molding, micro thermoforming, micro scorching embossing, and nanoimprinting

*Details commercially on hand scorching embossing equipment and elements like instruments and mould inserts

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First, a volume of polymer melt corresponding to the volume of the molded part is injected into a mold that is not completely closed. Because of the gap between the mold halves the injection can be done by lower pressure, resulting in a reduction of shear velocity and shear stress of the polymer melt. After the injection step the mold halves are closed by a compression step. This compression step is split into a velocity-controlled motion and finally, if the desired clamp force is achieved, in a force-controlled holding of the final press force over a defined cooling time.

This modified cycle is the variotherm process (Fig. 5). stationary ~ variotherm T molding temperature . M ::J "§ Q) ~TD demolding temperature . 5 Temperature profiles during conventional and variotherm processes of injection molding. During conventional injection molding, the temperature of the mold or mold insert is kept in the range of the glass-transition temperature of the polymer, which is below the injection temperature of the melt. The variotherm injection molding process is, in contrast, characterized by a heating and cooling step between molding temperature and curing temperature of the polymer.

An elastomeric stamp (made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)) is coated with molecules of thiols or silanes (a) and pressed against a substrate of gold or a silicon wafer (b). The structures are transferred by an ink process to the Ag or Au layer (c). By further etching processes, the structures are transferred into the silicon substrate (d). 2 Nanoimprint of UV-Curable Materials UV-curable polymers are well known in UV-lithography, where a UV-curable polymer will by structured by UV-radiation through a micro- or nanostructured chromium mask.

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