By Yongwang Ding
This ebook makes a speciality of excessive functionality radio frequency built-in circuits (RF IC) layout in CMOS. 1. improvement of radio frequency ICs instant communications has been advancing speedily long ago 20 years. Many excessive functionality structures were constructed, comparable to mobile structures (AMPS, GSM, TDMA, CDMA, W-CDMA, and so forth. ), GPS approach (global po- tioning procedure) and WLAN (wireless neighborhood zone community) platforms. The speedy progress of VLSI know-how in either electronic circuits and analog circuits presents merits for instant verbal exchange platforms. two decades in the past no longer many p- ple may think thousands of transistors in one chip or a whole radio for dimension of a penny. no longer in simple terms entire radios were installed a unmarried chip, but additionally progressively more services were learned through a unmarried chip and at a far lower cost. A radio transmits and gets electro-magnetic signs during the air. The signs are typically transmitted on excessive frequency companies. for instance, a t- ical voice sign calls for basically 30 Kilohertz bandwidth. whilst it really is transmitted through a FM radio station, it is usually carried via a frequency within the diversity of tens of megahertz to thousands of megahertz. often a radio is labeled through its service frequency, corresponding to 900 MHz radio or five GHz radio. more often than not, the better the service frequency, the higher the directivity, however the tougher the radio layout.
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Extra resources for High-linearity CMOS RF front-end circuits
6. 4 can be further improved if Vg, of the input transistors is kept constant. 7. With negative feedback to provide a constant drain current for the input transistors, Vg, of the MOS devices is forced to be constant over a large input range. Therefore, the input voltage is transferred across the linear resistor to produce a linear output current. Both polysilicon resistors and triode mode transistors can be used to provide source degeneration in CMOS. As is discussed above polysilicon resistors have a better linearity, while triode mode transistors have the benefits of better matching and resistance tuning.
Source degeneration may be added to a differential pair to improve its linearity. Either resistors or triode-mode transistors can be used for source degeneration, and HIGH-LINEARITY CMOS RF FRONT-END CIRCUITS lo-io M2 M1 Vin+ . I . 14. Differential pair with harmonic cancellation a constant 5, can further improve the linearity. The linearization technique of using a constant sum of V,, has also been discussed. By using floating voltage sources or simply grounding the common source, the linearity of the differential pair can be greatly improved.
13. The loop gain of the positive needs to be carefully controlled so that it is sufficient to cancel the effective mobility feedback resistor but small enough to avoid instability. 5. Cross-coupled differential pairs with harmonic cancellation This section presents a new transconductor with harmonic cancellation. When two differential pairs are cross-coupled with scaled inputs between each other, the signal harmonics can be cancelled at the output. 14 shows the cross-coupled differential pairs with harmonic cancellation.