High-Latitude Bioerosion: The Kosterfjord Experiment by Max Wisshak

By Max Wisshak

Bioerosion is the main strength using the degradation of marine skeletal carbonates and limestone coasts. a large spectrum of mechanical and/or chemical dull, scraping or crushing organisms holiday down calcareous substrates, comprising quite a few grazers, macroborers and particularly microborers. Their strains on and inside challenging substrates are recognized from fossil carbonates as previous because the Precambrian and function important palaeoenvironmental symptoms. Bioerosion procedures were largely studied in tropical seas, whereas corresponding investigations from cold-temperate to polar settings stay sparse. For the 1st time, an experimental examine yields perception into the speed of carbonate degradation and the chronology of uninteresting group improvement alongside a bathymetric gradient in a high-latitude surroundings.

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4. Comparison of the results to tropical endolithic communities and bioerosion rates and their interpretation in context of the global carbon(ate) cycling. Accompanying the experimental approach, endolithic colonisation in dead skeletons of the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa from the aphotic zone as well as of the shallow-water gastropod Littorina littorea were studied in detail (Sects. 4). These investigations on background sample material enable the comparison of the experimental results with advanced taphonomic stages of shell degradation.

As the only respective ichnotaxon, ‘Palaeoconchocelis starmachii’ was introduced to the literature (Campbell et al. 1979) but confusingly as a mixture of body- and trace fossil (and thus written in quotation marks here). Only premature studies have been directed towards endolithic rhodophytes and their traces yet, implying the potential for further discoveries in this respect. 2 billion years old strata in Arctic Canada (Butterfield et al. 1990). The oldest record of the Porphyra-related boring trace ‘Palaeoconchocelis starmachii’ stems from Silurian strata (Campbell 1980; Glaub & Bundschuh 1997) and a potential further rhodophyte ichnotaxon (Orthogonum tripartitum) was recorded in Ordovician ostracode valves (Olempska 1986; Schmidt 1992).

This way, a complete infiltration of the borings is assured and trapping of air is avoided. The latter method refines the time- 40 2 Materials and methods Fig. 5 Schematic sketch illustrating the cast-embedding technique: A The bored calcareous substrate with microendoliths and biofilms. B Removal of organic material by treatment with hydrogen peroxide and cleaning in an ultrasonic bath. C Infill with epoxy resin under vacuum conditions. D Formatting of blocks with a rock saw. E Removal of calcareous substrate via treatment with diluted hydrochloric acid.

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