By Judea Pearl
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As a pioneer in computational linguistics, operating within the earliest days of language processing by means of machine, Margaret Masterman believed that which means, no longer grammar, used to be the most important to figuring out languages, and that machines may perhaps make sure the which means of sentences. This quantity brings jointly Masterman's groundbreaking papers for the 1st time, demonstrating the significance of her paintings within the philosophy of technology and the character of iconic languages.
This learn explores the layout and alertness of ordinary language text-based processing platforms, in response to generative linguistics, empirical copus research, and synthetic neural networks. It emphasizes the sensible instruments to house the chosen procedure
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It also covers the cases in which the annotators have to access unpredicted sources of knowledge OR have to read the whole text to be able to annotate. Finally, 1 is for cases where the annotators both have to consult previously unidentiﬁed sources of knowledge AND the whole data ﬂow (usually, text). 12. The context as a complexity dimension: two sub-dimensions to take into account The gene renaming task is very complex from that point of view (1), as it required the annotators to read the whole text and they sometimes needed to consult new external sources.
Four options are available: 1) publish the corpus, which is considered to be in a sufﬁciently satisfactory state to be ﬁnal; 2) review the corpus and adapt the annotation guide; 3) adjudicate the corpus; 4) give up on revision and publication (failure). In most cases, a correction phase is necessary. 7 In case there is a correction (adjudication and reviewing), the corpus has to be evaluated and be submitted, with its indicators, to the decision of the manager, who can either publish the corpus or have it corrected again.
Synthesis of the complexity of the gene names renaming campaign (new scale x2) Annotating Collaboratively 43 Note that the decomposition into EATs does not imply a simpliﬁcation of the original task, as is often the case for Human Intelligence Tasks (HITs) performed by Turkers (workers) on Amazon Mechanical Turk (see, for example, [COO 10a]). 3. Annotation tools Once the complexity proﬁle is established, the manager has a precise vision of the campaign and can select an appropriate annotation tool.