By Irving B. Weiner
Psychology is of curiosity to lecturers from many fields, in addition to to the hundreds of thousands of educational and scientific psychologists and common public who can not help yet have an interest in studying extra approximately why people imagine and behave as they do. This award-winning twelve-volume reference covers each element of the ever-fascinating self-discipline of psychology and represents the most up-tp-date wisdom within the box, discoveries dependent in neuroscience, scientific psychology's new curiosity in evidence-based perform and mindfulness, and new findings in social, developmental, and forensic psychology.
Offers an authoritative overview in addition to perception into rising themes in psychology
Each quantity is the results of the collaboration of prime nationwide and overseas students with specialist quantity editors to supply chapters on almost each subject within the topic zone, from confirmed theories to the most up-tp-date examine and developments
Recognized because the definitive reference paintings within the field
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Functional psychology dealt not with mental elements as its primary focus but with mental operations; the role of consciousness in helping to adapt an organism to its environment involved psychology in a concern for mind and body relationships (Angell, 1907, p. 86). Functionalism was interested in the uses of consciousness and its role in guiding behavior; it was profoundly practical and reformist. Psychology and other social sciences were useful to a variety of educational and social reforms promoted during the progressive era (Fitzpatrick, 1990; Milar, 1999).
The use of a variety of methods would, in Angell’s view, supplement the results of the direct observations of mind that introspection provides. , its use or function) and was less concerned the content of mind. Mary Whiton Calkins (1863–1930) attempted to reconcile the differences between the structural and functional psychologies by proposing a psychology of the self that possesses both conscious contents and mental functions. Calkins had begun her study of psychology unofﬁcially at 11 Harvard with William James and Josiah Royce in 1890; Clark University professor Edmund Sanford tutored Calkins privately in experimental psychology.
Hull’s goal was to develop psychology as a natural science by demonstrating that behavioral phenomena obey universal, quantitative laws that can be stated by equations comparable to physical laws, “of the type governing the law of falling bodies” (Hull, 1950, p. 221). Even centuries after Kant, Hull was striving to demonstrate that psychology could indeed become a science that met the same standards as the physical sciences. For example, Hull (1934a, 1934b) proposed that the serial position effect in learning a list of words (the phenomena that errors occur more frequently in learning and in the recall of words from the middle The Psychological Laboratory and the Psychological Experiment of a serial list) exempliﬁes the same general law that describes the pattern of errors made by rats learning a complex maze (more errors occur in the center of the maze than at the start and the ﬁnish).