By Sangheon Lee and Francois Eyraud (Eds.)
This e-book represents a different learn which reports employment stipulations in Asia and the Pacific within the context of globalization and extending strain in the direction of flexibilization. It areas a powerful concentrate on the diverging studies of person employees of their employment stipulations akin to employment prestige, wages/incomes, operating time, paintings companies and health and wellbeing and security. in addition to thematic experiences about the roles of employees voice and labour rules in selecting employment stipulations, this publication contains 9 kingdom reports which were undertaken in line with a standard examine framework for a extra rigorous comparability within the region.
- A systematic assessment of employment stipulations within the nations that are rigorously chosen within the region
- National-level research in keeping with a typical learn framework
- A hugely analytical and well timed research of staff voice and labour law with admire to employment conditions
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Additional resources for Globalization, Flexibilization and Working Conditions in Asia and the Pacific
However, statistics indicate that average working hours have decreased in many countries in the region, with some notable exceptions, such as China and the Philippines. In China, despite the introduction of the 40-hour working week in 1995, average working hours increased in the 2000s, especially in the retail sectors (see Chen and Hou in Chapter 10 of this volume). These increases were particularly strong among low-paid workers in elementary occupations and small enterprises (see also Cooke, 2005, Chapter 8).
Another complicating issue is the persistent presence of informal employment arrangements in formal enterprises. For instance, many workers do not have a written contract so that terms and conditions for their employment are not specified, or at best they have implicit contracts based on verbal agreements. In 2005, about 39 per cent of employees did not have a written employment contract. If these workers and their employment conditions are taken into account, the actual size of the non-standard labour force is estimated to reach more than 50 per cent of total employees (see Lee and Yoo in Chapter 6 of this volume).
Furthermore, this subcontracting process is supplemented by a significant recourse to agency-hired workers. 8 per cent of total employment in non-agricultural Philippine establishments with 20 or more workers. Yet, such changes towards casualization had taken place even before the financial crisis. 4 Non-regular employment in the Philippines (in thousands) 900 800 40 63 700 43 48 Thousands 600 500 400 35 37 90 300 102 200 100 250 170 143 134 119 319 401 0 1992 1995 1997 Contractual workers Casual workers Commission-paid workers Part-time workers Task workers (Pakyao) Source: Bureau of Labour and Employment Statistics.