By Auli Niemi, Jacob Bear, Jacob Bensabat
This publication deals readers a accomplished evaluate, and an in-depth knowing, of compatible equipment for quantifying and characterizing saline aquifers for the geological garage of CO2. It starts with a common assessment of the technique and the techniques that ensue while CO2 is injected and saved in deep saline-water-containing formations. It thus offers mathematical and numerical versions used for predicting the results of CO2 injection.
This e-book offers descriptions of correct experimental tools, from laboratory experiments to box scale web site characterization and methods for tracking spreading of the injected CO2 in the formation. reviews from a couple of very important box injection initiatives are reviewed, as are these from CO2 common analog websites. finally, the ebook provides appropriate chance administration methods.
Geological garage of CO2 is extensively thought of to be a key expertise able to considerably decreasing the volume of CO2 published into the ambience, thereby decreasing the detrimental affects of such releases at the worldwide weather. worldwide, tasks are already in complete swing, whereas others are actually being initiated and accomplished to illustrate the know-how.
Deep saline formations are the geological formations thought of to carry the top garage power, as a result of their abundance world wide. thus far, although, those formations were really poorly characterised, as a result of their low financial worth. for that reason, the strategies excited by injecting and storing CO2 in such formations nonetheless have to be larger quantified and strategies for characterizing, modeling and tracking this kind of CO2 garage in such formations has to be quickly built and refined.
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Additional info for Geological Storage of CO2 in Deep Saline Formations
Accessed 28 Jun 2016 Le Treut H, Somerville R, Cubasch U, Ding Y, Mauritzen C, Mokssit A, Peterson T, Prather M (2007) Historical overview of climate change science. In: Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Averyt KB, Tignor M, Miller HL (eds) Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 14 Dec 2008 Monroe R (2013) What does 400 ppm look like?
Chemically, at the CO2 front where CO2 is dissolved in water, the acidity of the groundwater is increased and many minerals comprising the host rock matrix minerals such as calcite, may dissolve readily, leading to an increase in permeability and porosity along the flow channel. This leads to a higher flow rate and increased dissolution, potentially forming what are known as wormholes. On the other hand, based on experience from enhanced oil recovery, CO2 has been known to reduce injectivity in some cases, but to increase permeability near injection wells in others.
Acknowledgments The authors would like to gratefully acknowledge the input of Torsten Lange and Martin Sauter, on which part of Sect. 2 is based. Discussions with and input from Jens Birkholzer, Marco Dentz, Jesus Carrera, Tore Torp, Jacob Bear, Jacob Bensabat, and other members of the Mustang project are much appreciated. Careful review and helpful comments from Christine Doughty and Quanlin Zhou are also acknowledged with thanks. The work is funded by the European Community’s Seventh Framework Programme FP7/2007-2013, under Grant Agreement No.