By Joseph Hoy
This e-book is meant for use as either a textual content ebook and as an aide memoire guide via forensic radio survey engineers, quite these operating for reputable police organisations. The ebook presents an easy yet exact evaluate of the operation of mobile networks (GSM, UMTS and LTE, US CDMAOne/CDMA2000, among others). additionally, the writer additionally offers an outline of the technical theories that underpin mobile radio structures – simple radio concept and a straightforward rationalization of the mathematical options that underlie measurements scales corresponding to dB and dBm. the most a part of the e-book, even if, specializes in radio surveys, many of the kinds of survey, the concepts hired for every survey and the issues and capability difficulties that may be encountered whilst surveying varieties of community. the ultimate part offers with processing and examining the result of radio surveys and examines the data that may be received from them.
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Additional info for Forensic Radio Survey Techniques for Cell Site Analysis
2â•… Decibels The unit known as the decibel was designed to enable easier calculations of power gains and power losses in a system. If these gains were each expressed as a logarithm, then the total gain would be the sum of these values, following the law of powers. This logarithmic value is known as a ‘Bel’ (named after Alexander Graham Bell). The logarithm of a radio signal’s power gain or power loss – that is, Log10(mW) – is expressed as a ‘decibel’ (or dB), the value of which is one-tenth of a Bel.
A mobile phone measuring signals from a nearby base station would typically report values of –48 to –80 dBm, whereas a phone being used some distance away from a suburban or rural base station will commonly report signal strengths of –80 to –100 dBm. 5 presents a selection of common cellular dBm values and their linear equivalents (in mW). The mW values shown are unrealistically precise (in reality it is not likely that a mobile device would be capable of capturing measurements to 15 decimal places), the values have been shown in this format simply to emphasise how small they are.
An analogue transmission system modulates an analogue radio carrier with analogue information, such as an audio signal. 9. If the information to be transmitted is already in a digital format – computer data, Internet traffic and so on – then it can be conveyed directly to the transmitter. Information that starts in an analogue format, such as voice, must be converted from analogue to digital before being transmitted (and converted from digital back to analogue at the receiving end). Most digital transmission devices, such as a modern digital mobile phone, include the capability to perform ADC (Analogue to Digital Conversion) to allow audio ‘traffic’ to be transmitted over a digital radio service and DAC (Digital to Analogue Conversion) to convert it back to audio at the receiving end.