By Marília Afonso Rabelo Buzalaf (ed.)
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Extra resources for Fluoride and the Oral Environment
Such disturbances may be due to hypoxia in high altitude areas. This ultimately leads to a decrease in urinary pH, reducing fluoride renal excretion and, therefore, increasing fluoride concentrations in the body. Physical Activity In prolonged physical activity, there is a reduction in the pH gradient across cell membranes, 30 especially skeletal muscle cells, which promotes the diffusion of fluoride (as HF) from the extracellular to the intracellular fluid. In addition, renal vasoconstriction can occur due to increased secretion of catecholamines and muscular blood flow during exercise.
J Am Dent Assoc 2010;141:1190–1201. 165 Fomon SJ, Ekstrand J: Fluoride intake by infants. J Public Health Dent 1999;59:229–234. 166 Kumar JV, Swango PA: Fluoride exposure and dental fluorosis in Newburgh and Kingston, New York: policy implications. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1999;27:171–180. 167 Tavener JA, Davies GM, Davies RM, Ellwood RP: The prevalence and severity of fluorosis and other developmental defects of enamel in children who received free fluoride toothpaste containing either 440 or 1450 ppm F from the age of 12 months.
Additionally, fluoride levels in urine and osteocalcin levels in serum were found to be significantly lower in controls from non-endemic villages compared to cases. However, the differences in fluoride and osteocalcin levels were not observed when cases were compared to a control population from endemic fluorosis villages. This study provided the first evidence of an association between polymorphisms in the COL1A2 gene with dental fluorosis in high-fluoride-exposed populations . Conclusion In view of the diverse effects that fluoride can produce in biological systems, it is not surprising that it has been the subject of thousands of scientific reports.