By David W. Taylor, Leo Hickey
The foundation, early evolution and basal phylogeny of angiosperms stay parts of ferment in botanical learn. swift growth is being made, partially a result of unparalleled variety of ways now to be had and to the elevated volume of empirical info. the themes of angiosperm constitution and evolution are lined in numerous chapters that debate vegetative and reproductive characters, in addition to talk about the results of ancestral angiosperm characters for an herbaceous foundation. The final chapters speak about the phylogeny of angiosperms from a constitution and molecular point of view.
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Extra resources for Flowering Plant Origin, Evolution & Phylogeny
1993). For most authors the paleoherbs included Aristolochiales, Nymphaeales, Piperales, and Liliopsida (monocotyledons) among others. Lactoridaceae are included by most authors mentioned but not by Loconte and Stevenson (1991). , 1989; Hamby, 1990; Hamby and Zimmer, 1992; Taylor and Hickey, 1992), although the component groups are still viewed by these authors as having been derived early in angiosperm evolution. Given the current interest in paleoherbs, our goal in this chapter is to use data from comparative floral development to examine phylogenetic relationships among selected taxa via a cladistic analysis.
Piperaceae; Tucker, 1982a, 1982b), Saruma henryi Oliver (Aristolochiaceae), Saururus cernuus L. (Saururaceae; Tucker, 1975, 1976, 1979), and Scilla violacea Hutch. (Liliaceae; Sattler, 1973). The outgroup taxa used were ranunculids Ranunculus repens L. and Aquilegia formosa var. truncata (F. ) Baker (Ranunculaceae; Tepfer, 1953). , 1993; Loconte and Stevenson, 1991; Donoghue and Doyle, 1989a, 1989b). Cronquist's book (1981) was useful throughout. 1 (Swofford, 1993) using Multiple Parsimony (MULPARS), Delayed Transformation, and the Branch-and-Bound option.
The placenta within the carpel is homologous to the female short-shoot itself. Our data consistently support the hypothesis that the ancestral carpel morphology is ascidiate with a marginal stigma and basal to slightly lateral placentation of one or two orthotropous ovules. Transformations to other carpel types are likely to be a result of the integration of the primordia producing the gynoecial appendage and the carpel wall, with the placental growth area. We suggest that the evolution of curved ovules and the placement of the ovules in other positions was to direct the micropyle away from the stigma or pollen-tube transmission-tissue.