By Detlev Richter
The topic of this ebook is to introduce a model-based quantitative functionality indicator method appropriate for functionality, expense and reliability optimization of non-volatile thoughts. The advanced instance of flash thoughts is used to introduce and observe the method. it's been constructed by way of the writer in keeping with an commercial 2-bit to 4-bit in keeping with phone flash improvement undertaking. For the 1st time, layout and price features of 3D integration of flash reminiscence are handled during this book.
Cell, array, functionality and reliability results of flash thoughts are brought and analyzed. Key functionality parameters are derived to address the flash complexity. A functionality and array reminiscence version is built and a collection of functionality signs characterizing structure, rate and sturdiness is outlined.
Flash thoughts are chosen to use the functionality Indicator technique to quantify layout and expertise innovation. A graphical illustration in response to development traces is brought to aid a demand dependent product improvement process.
The functionality Indicator technique is utilized to illustrate the significance of hidden reminiscence parameters for a profitable product and process improvement roadmap.
Flash stories offers a chance to reinforce your realizing of product improvement key subject matters resembling:
· Reliability optimization of flash thoughts is all approximately threshold voltage margin realizing and definition;
· Product functionality parameter are analyzed in-depth in all elements relating to the brink voltage operation window;
· Technical features are translated into quantitative functionality indicators;
· functionality signs are utilized to spot and quantify product and know-how innovation inside adjoining parts to meet the applying specifications with an total fee optimized answer; · rate, density, functionality and sturdiness values are mixed right into a universal issue – functionality indicator - which fulfills the applying requirements
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Additional info for Flash Memories: Economic Principles of Performance, Cost and Reliability Optimization
These are the two major benefits for charge trapping based non-volatile technologies. The following Fig. 17 shows a typical SONOS cell to explain the functionality. The FN tunnelling of the SONOS flash cell is performed as known from the FG flash cell. The voltage at the storage layer increased so that the effective electric field across the tunnel oxide is high enough to start the tunnel process of electrons from bulk into the nitride layer. As charge tunnels and get trapped into the nitride, the electric field over the tunnel oxide is reduced, which decreases the electron injection process.
A detailed investigation of the one transistor flash cell is done specifically for the two shown storage elements combined with the best matching array architecture. Floating gate cells are applied to a NAND array which requires two times FN tunneling—the most efficient way to program and erase. This combination enables 20 2 Fundamentals of Non-Volatile Memories Fig. 13 Non-volatile memory—cell and array overview Fig. 14 Floating gate flash cell a cost and energy optimized NAND flash memory product.
Erased cells can be erased over and over and they are shifted outside of the Vth_LL . A limited number of cells can show an erratic behaviour. Their Vth values are much lower compared to the applied erase voltage conditions. Cells on the left side of the Vth_LL border impact the sensing accuracy of a NOR array.