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Extra resources for Evolution of Animal Behavior: Paleontological and Field Approaches
Cracraft (1981) has criticized morphologists for their axiomatic acceptance of concepts of selection and their failure to undertake research programs that test the role of selection in producing morphological patterns. The same criticism can be applied to the selection criterion of homology recognition: the use of selection is axiomatic, not deductive. There is to my knowledge no way to determine selection pressures (magnitude and direction) and their effect on behavior by simply examining the behavior of a few individuals.
The size of teeth on the pharyngeal bones was quantified by digitizing the areas of teeth on the pharyngeal jaws of nine species. Information on the trophic biology of sunfish species was obtained from the literature and from laboratory observations. Only two species, Lepomis gibbosus and L. microlophus, would regularly eat snails in the laboratory, and these two species also are the chief natural molluscivores within the Centrarchidae (Savitz, 1981; Gosline, 1985). Individuals of one other species of centrarchid, Lepomis cyanellus (green sunfishes), would eat snails in the laboratory.
C. Schneirla. W. H. Freeman, San Francisco, pp. 53-74. Ayers, J. , and F. Clarac. 1978. Neurornuscular strategies underlying different behavioral acts in a multifunctional crustacean leg joint. Journal of Comparative Physiology 128:81-94. Ayers, J. , and W. J. Davis. 1977. Neuronal control of locomotion in the lobster, Homarus americanus. I. Motor programs for forward and backward walking. Journal of Comparative Physiology 115:1 —27. Bacrends, G. P. 1958. Comparative methods and the concept of homology in the study of behavior.