By William Hughes
This introductory textual content addresses the foundations and mechanisms of toxicology as utilized to environmentally-encountered poisonous brokers. every one bankruptcy concludes with evaluate questions which may be used for pupil self-testing and issues lined comprise dose reaction, risks and probability overview, decision of toxicity, insecticides, metals, plastics, natural solvents, environmental cancer agents, teratogens and mutagens.
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Diffusion is also accelerated when the skin has been pretreated with organic solvents, such as chloroform (CHCl 3), methanol (CH 3 OH), or dimethyl sulfoxide ([CH3]2SO). Enhanced epidermal permeability is thought to result from the removal of extracellular lipids by these solvents. Finally, when toxicants become localized in the epidermis, local toxicity, rather than systemic toxicity, is the likely result. This is because the epidermis is avascular (having no blood vessels). Without a transport mechanism, toxicants cannot be distributed to other areas of the body where systemic toxicity may result.
1 mg/kg). The “response” axis in a dose-response graph may be presented as a frequencyresponse or a cumulative-response. A frequency dose-response graph plots the percentage of organisms responding to a given dose (Figure 3–2A). These graphs can usually be recognized by their “bellshaped” appearance. The cumulative dose-response graph represents the cumulative sum of responses from lower to higher doses (Figure 3–2B). The frequency or percentage of organisms responding to the lowest dose is added to the percentage responding to the next dose, which is then added to the third dose, and so on.
B. C. D. E. 10 mg 10 mg/animal 10 mg/kg 10 mL 10 mg/mL 6. Which represents a logarithmic dose sequence? A. B. C. D. E. 5 mg/kg 7. _____________ examines the mechanism by which a toxicant has its unique cellular effect within the organism. 8. Toxicity is determined when, on the administration of a substance, an observable and well-defined _____________ is identified. 9. Why is the correct selection of a test organism critical to a toxicity test? 10. , age, gender, disease states) affecting toxicity and toxicity testing.