By Eric Whaites
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Extra resources for Essentials of Dental Radiography and Radiology 3rd Edition
5). In free space, X-rays travel in straight lines. Velocity in free space = 3 x 108 m s ] In free space, X-rays obey the inverse square law: Intensity = 1/d2 Doubling the distance from an X-ray source reduces the intensity to \ (a very important principle in radiation protection, see Ch. 6). No medium is required for propagation. Shorter-wavelength X-rays possess greater energy and can therefore penetrate a greater distance. Longer-wavelength X-rays, sometimes referred to as soft X-rays, possess less energy and have little penetrating power.
The NRPB suggests that for children the risk estimates should be multiplied by two and for geriatric patients to be divided by five. This epidemiological information is being updated continually and recent reports suggest that the risk from low-dose radiation may be considerably greater than thought previously. However, the present figures at least provide an idea of the comparative order of magnitude of the risk involved from different investigations. This in turn helps keep the risks associated with dental radiology in perspective.
Film gamma and average gradient Film gamma is the maximum gradient or slope of the linear portion of the characteristic curve. 0 35 Fig. 16 Characteristic curves showing A. film gamma and B average gradient of an indirect-action (screen) film. e. a steep gradient), that film will show good contrast, but will have less latitude. e. a shallow gradient), that film will show poor contrast but will have wider latitude. Fig. 17 Diagram showing the cross-sectional structure of a typical intensifying screen.