Environment Dictionary by David Kemp

By David Kemp

The surroundings Dictionary offers a vital resource of knowledge on all features of our environment. It comprises all of the easy clinical phrases and ideas besides socio-economic, cultural, historic and political parts which effect at the surroundings. This dictionary offers the interdisciplinary process required to appreciate environmental concerns all over the world. Designed for quite a lot of readers, the dictionary is up to date, effortless to learn and to reference. chosen environmental matters that have specific value are taken care of in larger intensity via a sequence of boxed case stories. quite a lot of maps and figures illustrate the texts and huge cross-referencing among entries guarantees readers can construct on their wisdom.

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ALKALI A compound, usually a soluble hydroxide of a metal, such as sodium hydroxide (NaOH), whichonsolutionwithwaterproducesan excess of hydroxyl ions (OH-). Alkalis neutralize acids to form salts andrelease water formedwhenhydrogen (H+)andhydroxyl ions (OH-) combine. Acidified lakes may be neutralized, for example, by the addition of calcium hydroxide (Ca( OH),). H,SO, sulphuric acid + Ca(OH), + CaSO, + 2H,O calcium water hydroxide sulphate See also Acid rain, Base. ALLIANCE OF SMALL ISLAND STATES (AOSIS) A group of states, occupying low-lying islandsmainly in theSouthPacificand IndianOceansand in theCaribbean,that consider themselves most likely to suffer the consequences of therisingsea-leveland increased storminess expectedto accompany global warming.

Preliminary results indicated the 0 absence of a distinct hole over the Arctic, but hyper-arid decreases of 10-20 per cent in Arctic ozone arid weredetected. Because theArcticstratosphere is generally warmer than its Antarctic Source: UN Web Page counterpart,polarstratosphericcloudsare South America 1 semi-arid drysub-humid 29 Permanent dryness caused by low average rainfall, often (but not always)in combination with high temperatures. The deserts of the world are permanently arid, with rainfall amounts of less than 100 mm per year, and evapotranspiration rates well in excess of that amount.

Although alluvium is a natural product of the erosion/transporatation/deposition cycle in the environment, human activity may provideadditionalmaterialorincreasethe rate at which it becomes available. Deforestation or the mismanagement of agricultural 21 AMINO ACIDS Figure A-1 1 An alluvial fan formed where a flowing stream deposits sediments into the standing waters of a lake Photograph: The author land, for example, can lead to accelerated soilcorrosion resistant, aluminum and its alloys erosion,whichincreasestheavailability of are used in aircraft construction and for other alluvium and disrupts the environment uses wherea high strengthlweightratio is through such processes as siltation, flooding desirable.

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