By Christopher P. Atwood
The purpose of this encyclopedia is to hide either the background and tradition of the Mongolian peoples and of the Mongol Empire in the thirteenth and 14th centuries. whereas many see Mongol historical past easily as an outward explosion of an unlimited empire that left little legacy, the tale of Mongol heritage and tradition is additionally one of a humans and historical past that built from prehistory to the current on an analogous windswept plateau. during this encyclopedia the object on heritage surveys Mongolian heritage and the a number of interpretations of it.
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Further reading: Junko Miyawaki, “Background of the Volga-Kalmyk Khanship: The Case of Ayouki Khan of the Torguts,” in Altaic Religious Beliefs and Practices, ed. Géza Bethlenfalvy et al. (Budapest: Research Group for Altaic Studies, 1992), 239–244; Johann Christian Schnitscher, An Account of the Kalmyk Land under Ayuki Khan, trans. John R. : Mongolia Society, 1996). Azhu See AJU. ” Baghdad, siege of The siege of Baghdad, while lasting only from January 29 to February 10, 1258, destroyed what had once been the world center of Islamic culture and political authority.
Recently environmental concerns have led to development plans for Lake Baikal that envision phasing out commercial fisheries and developing tourism based on amateur sport fishing. See also HUNTING AND FISHING. Bait See BAYAD. Bajan-Ölgij See BAYAN-ÖLGII PROVINCE. balish See YASTUQ. Baljuna Covenant At Baljuna Lake in summer 1203, swore an oath that if he became ruler, he would reward those who had suffered with him in his rise to power. The Baljuna covenanters formed a group of hereditary servants of the dynasty.
All finds were removed from Mongolia, and none of these expeditions trained local Mongolian archaeologists. Soviet scholars began systematic research on Mongolian sites in the postwar period. In 1948–49 S. V. Kiselev (1905–62) led a team investigating the cities of Mongolia and Tuva, including QARA-QORUM and Ordu-Baligh. In 1949 A. P. Okladnikov (1908–81) led the MongolianSoviet Joint Historical and Ethnographic Research Expedition, which investigated, among other things, Stone Age sites and XIONGNU barrows.