Encyclopedia of mathematics by Michiel Hazewinkel

By Michiel Hazewinkel

This is often the 3rd supplementary quantity to Kluwer's hugely acclaimed twelve-volume Encyclopaedia of arithmetic. This extra quantity includes approximately 500 new entries written by way of specialists and covers advancements and issues no longer incorporated within the earlier volumes. those entries are prepared alphabetically all through and a targeted index is incorporated. This supplementary quantity complements the present twelve volumes, and jointly, those 13 volumes symbolize the main authoritative, complete and up to date Encyclopaedia of arithmetic to be had.

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109] Lawrencium ( 103 Lr), OS: +3, 0; IE: 4479 (I + II + III) kJ mol−1 . 867 22 Ti), OS: +4, +3, +2, (+1), 0; IE: 658 kJ mol−1 . 38 V (calcd) Standard potentials are calculated values. The electrochemical measurements have supplied contradictory values. This is mainly due to the formation of oxides and hydride films on the Ti surface, which causes it to behave as a noble metal. Titanium dissolves rapidly only in HF. 224 40 Zr), OS: +4, +3, +2, +1, 0; IE: 661 kJ mol−1 . 49 72 Hf), OS: +4, +3, +2, +1, 0; IE: 681 kJ mol−1 .

996 24 Cr), OS: +6, +3, +2, 0; IE: 652 kJ mol−1 . 1 M TEAP, CH3 CN) Data for chromium amino carboxylate complexes can be found in Ref. 36. 94 42 Mo), OS: +6, +5, +4, +3, +2, 0; IE: 685 kJ mol−1 . 98 V (calcd) In solution Mo(VI) exists in the form of colorless MoO4 2− anion at pH > 6. Acid hydrolysis results in the formation of polyanions, for example, [Mo8 O26 ]4− (pH 33 34 2 Standard, Formal, and Other Characteristic Potentials of Selected Electrode Reactions > 1) or [Mo36 O112 ]8− , [H2 Mo2 O6 ]2+ (pH > 1).

4 kJ mol−1 . 42 V The E 0 values were calculated from thermodynamic data. In aqueous solutions, Ge4+ exist in different forms, such as [GeO(OH)3 ]− and [GeO2 (OH)2 ]2− . Hydrides are of the type Gen H2n+2 (1 < n < 9). 3 kJ mol−1 . 3 kJ mol−1 . 77 × 10−14 Complex equilibria Recent data on several Pb2+ complexes can be found in Refs 59, 64. 00677 N), OS: +5, +4, +3, +2, +1, 0, −1/3, −1, −2, −3; IE: 1402, 2856, 4577 kJ mol−1 , 16 920 (IV + V) kJ mol−1 . 1 V (Nitrogen fixation, that is, the conversion of N2 to the nonzero OS, is thermodynamically possible; however, both the oxidation and the reduction of N2 are kinetically hindered.

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