By Louis Kontos, David C. Brotherton
In 1927 the 1st booklet on gang lifestyles, Frederic Thrasher’s the crowd: A examine of 1,313 Gangs in Chicago, used to be released. in simple terms within the final two decades, as gangs have unfold from the interior towns to the suburbs and past, has the examine of gangs develop into greater than only a specialization in sociology and criminology. For this new encyclopedia, editors and nearly 60 different individuals have written eighty two signed entries exploring gangs and public guidelines and courses designed to deal in a good demeanour with the matter of gangs. The alphabetical entries variety from one-half web page (Non-racist skinheads) to twelve pages (Mexican gangs). phrases in daring kind point out a separate access within the encyclopedia. an inventory of references and recommended readings on the finish of every access leads the reader to extra in-depth works. The preface and creation set the level for the precise evaluation of gangs that follows. An index completes the amount. The creation highlights 4 components which are coated within the encyclopedia: gang thought, gang practices, gang kinds, and gang enlargement. Examples of entries on gang concept are Differential organization concept and Subcultural theories of gangs. Gang practices comprise such subject matters as Gang garments, Gang graffiti, and Gang symbols. Gang varieties comprise Gangs in U.S. colleges and Gangs in prisons; ethnic gangs (e.g., The Black Hand and Jewish gangs and gangsters); and gender gangs (e.g., The Latin Queens). Gang enlargement is roofed in such entries as Australian adolescence gangs and Transnational gangs. a listing of entries and a consultant to similar issues precede the alphabetical entries. this primary encyclopedia as regards to gangs certainly provides what the editors meant: an orientation to the topic, a stimulation of interest, and assistance for additional research of the topic via the reader. steered for tutorial and big public libraries. — Kaye Talley
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Extra info for Encyclopedia of Gangs
13 14 BLOODS Although, there may be inter-set conﬂict among the Bloods, their conﬂicts have not evolved into long-term warfare. Blood members from one set are able to move to other Blood neighborhoods and join them. They may also adopt the set’s identity or just hang out with the set members and retain their old set identity. Subculture The Bloods subculture developed through the process of “afﬁrmation by negation” identiﬁed by Dwight Conquergood (1997, 1993, 1992). Afﬁrmation by negation refers to the strategy used by some gangs to afﬁrm their identity by negating the symbolism of their rivals.
Although there is disagreement among researchers as to the extent of participation of Chicano gangs in drug markets, it is agreed that their main income stream is the sale of drugs. “Business among gang members refers principally to drug sales.
Subculture The Bloods subculture developed through the process of “afﬁrmation by negation” identiﬁed by Dwight Conquergood (1997, 1993, 1992). Afﬁrmation by negation refers to the strategy used by some gangs to afﬁrm their identity by negating the symbolism of their rivals. Bloods’ antagonism with the Crips permeates every aspect of the Bloods subculture. Their regalia include wearing a red bandana in the right back pocket of their pants. Their clothes of choice include Calvin Klein, highlighting the CK to represent Crip Killer.