By Allen J. Bard, Martin Stratmann, George S. Wilson
From primary examine to its program within the undefined, this encyclopedia covers all features of electrochemistry. It offers either a complete evaluate for electrochemists and an available examine electrochemical subject matters for clients from different medical disciplines. quantity nine during this sequence deals a close exam of biochemistry.
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Additional resources for Encyclopedia of Electrochemistry, Bioelectrochemistry
2, with detail in Fig. 3, will be mounted on a microscopic setup to enable measurements, Fig. 4. 2 Advantages of Using Three-dimensional Microstructures Apart from providing new formats, to make novel measurements, such miniaturized devices offer additional electroanalytical advantages. For example, traditionally, one perceived disadvantage of single cell analysis has been the difﬁculty of mitigating for biological variation, resulting in the need to repeat the measurement on many different individual cells.
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The technique makes use of a mask, a (UV) light source and a spun photoactive polymer (or photoresist) to transfer the pattern (from the mask) onto a surface, as a template for the subsequent deposition of metals or dielectrics. For example, metals such as gold or platinum, which provide suitable electroanalytical surfaces, can be readily deposited over the template and the geometry of the device revealed by dissolving the polymer using a technique known as ‘‘lift-off’’. The process, which involves a number of sequential steps, can be repeated many times to reproduce identical microstructures.