Ellipsometry for Industrial Applications by Karl Riedling

By Karl Riedling

During the prior years, elliposometry, a non-destructive and contact-less optical floor research procedure, has won elevated significance in commercial components, reminiscent of the know-how of digital units, while uncomplicated tools, a lot of them computer-controlled and automatic, turned on hand. the capability clients of such tools are, despite the fact that, often acutely aware neither of the inherent chances of this system, nor of its accuracy barriers. This e-book endeavors to indicate the various much less seen beneficial properties and probabilities of ellipsometry, quite of dynamic "in situ" measurements, and reports its functions in study and production of semiconductor and skinny movie units. A complete dialogue of varied blunders results average fairly for easy ellipsometers and in their impression on measured pattern parameters is equipped. blunders correction or (numerical) calibration methods are given anyplace attainable, and layout and operation instructions for high-speed tools appropriate for dynamic "in situ" measurements are suggested.

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The hypothesis that not the doping density but primarily the lattice damage determines the changes of the refractive index is corroborated by the fact that arsenic doses as low as 10 12 cm -2 caused a measurable effect whereas the detection level for a boron implantation was at a dose of at least 1015 cm- 2 [48]. It is, in general, not possible to obtain quantitative results from 20 Ellipsometry in Microelectronic Technology ellipsometric measurements for the thickness of the damaged layer or the type of damage; the measurements give, however, conclusive qualitative evidence of the presence and degree of surface damage, and of the lattice restoration achieved with subsequent annealing treatments.

If such a tilt angle is small enough, it has an effect similar to a corresponding azimuthal misalignment of the entire instrument. The tilt angle p can be calculated from two independent pairs of P-A azimuth readings for minimum intensity with a linearized complex approach; the real part of the result can be considered as the actual tilt angle which can be subtracted from all azimuths prior to any further evaluation steps in order to compensate for the "misalignment". The imaginary part of the result is an error term whose magnitude gives some indication whether the deviations from eq.

The am plitude of this noise signal can be estimated as the product of the difference angle between the ideal and the actual positions of the encoder bars, and the maximum derivative of the sinusoidal intensity signal with respect to the analyzer angle. This effect has to be taken into account when the influence of random noise is discussed. An entirely different error mechanism, however, is caused by an eccentrically mounted and therefore orbiting encoder disk. The apparent interval angle between two encoder bars varies approximately sinusoidally in this case, causing, despite of a constant angular speed w of the encoder, a frequency modulation of the sampling interval ilt.

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