Development of an environmental impact assessment and by Sabine Latteman

By Sabine Latteman

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Additional resources for Development of an environmental impact assessment and decision support system for seawater desalination plants

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In the Gulf, some SWRO plants (Fujairah II, Hamriyah, Layyah) have recently incorporated DAF followed by UF or media filters to deal with the problem of extended periods of red tides [55]. The formation of inorganic scales, metal oxides and hydroxides, sometimes encountered in the tail elements of BWRO plants, does not present a problem with most seawater feeds, where the precipitation of sparingly soluble salts is less likely to occur due to the relatively low recovery rate of SWRO plants, which is usually limited to 50%, the high ionic strength of seawater, and the low concentration of bicarbonate ions in seawater [54].

2 km, -25 m), 3 stages: 1. flocculation, DAF 2. gravity DMF 3. 88 kWh/m3 (1st pass) offshore Carboneras, Spain [60] 120,000 m3 /d, operated at 10% of nominal capacity recovery: 43% open intake, DMF not used 1 mg/l FeCl3 , no coag. 5% recovery 1. flocculation, sedimentation 2. 5 kWh/m3 specific d. 5 kWh/m3 intake/pretreat. 5 kWh/m3 on average no information no information no information no information 31 continued on next page Copyright 2010, Sabine Lattemann 2. 1 achieved despite poor feed quality (SDI5 = 20), UF: Dow 2.

0 mg/l, dechlorination with sodium bisulfite Removal of suspended matter (page 71): coagulation-flocculation, granular media filtration use of coagulants, typically ferric salts, and coagulant aids, typically polyelectrolytes, pH adjustment to pH 6-7 Control of scaling (page 75): acid addition and/or antiscalant chemicals Cartridge filters as a final protection barrier against suspended particles and microorganisms Backwash of media filters with filtered water from the media filters or with RO concentrate, may be enhanced with air, usually once a day (depending on raw water quality) Cleaning in place (CIP) CIP of SWRO membranes with alkaline and acidic solutions containing chemical additives such as oxidants or detergents, 4-12 times per year UF/MF pretreatment after surface intakes (see Tables 6 and 7 for specific plant details) Chlorination-dechlorination (often not necessary) Pretreatment against scaling (if necessary) Granular media filtration (if necessary) Backwash of UF/MF membranes with UF/MF filtrate, optionally air enhanced backwash (AEB) or air scour, typically every 20-60 min.

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