By Alan Berger
Half I Contextualizing panorama alteration via historical, systemic, and biologic views -- half II Interdisciplinary responses and possibilities in reclamation -- half III know-how, illustration, and data in reclamation layout -- half IV destiny instructions and courses in US reclamation coverage and legislation
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Hitchmough (eds) The Dynamic Landscape, London: Spon Press. Krech, S. (1999) The Ecological Indian: Myth and History, New York: Norton. A. (2002) ‘Nutrient retention and nutrient-use efficiency in Phragmites australis stands after wastewater application,’ Wetlands 22: 712–21. J. (1984) ‘Commercial vegetative inoculum of Pisolithus tinctorium and inoculation techniques for development of ectomycorrhizae on bareroot tree seedlings,’ Forest Science Monograph 25: 1–101. Normile, D. (2004) ‘Expanding trade with China creates ecological backlash,’ Science 306: 968– 69.
And the two do seem to be the same thing. This new kind of order, or chaos, or “chaorder,” as some have called it, seems to be at the heart of an extraordinary range of interesting problems that have appeared as philosophers, mathematicians, scientists, and cybernetic technologists have tried to squeeze the last drops of the imponderable out of their disciplines. They include the biology and brain problems already mentioned; the problem of how to describe catastrophic changes and singularities by means of a continuous mathematics; the problem of how to predict the future states of positive-feedback processes; Gödel’s paradox, which detaches the true from the provable; the description of phase changes in crystallography and electrochemistry; the phenomenon of turbulence; the dynamics of open systems and nonlinear processes; the observer problem in a variety of disciplines; the failure of sociological and economic predictive models to account for the rational expectations and second-guessing of real human subjects; the theoretical limitations of Turing machines, which, in certain circumstances, cannot turn themselves off (Penrose 2002: 40–86); the question of how to fit the fractal geometry of Benoit Mandelbrot into orthodox mathematics (1983: passim); the classification of quasicrystals and Penrose tilings; the issues of selfreflection, bootstrapping, and positive feedback in general; and, most troubling of all, the question of the nature of time.
Such disturbance-adapted, “pioneer” species are clearly the best choice for re-vegetating steep mining sites, in which the succession process starts with bare rock. 1, I have summarized the life-history traits that, in general, preadapt woody plants for re-vegetating mine reclamation sites. The fourth and final aspect of my strategic approach to reclamation requires an acknowledgment – early on in the design process – of the need for ongoing maintenance at all constructed landscapes, regardless of scale.