Dams and Development: Transnational Struggles for Water and by Sanjeev Khagram

By Sanjeev Khagram

Monstrous dams equipped for irrigation, energy, water offer, and different reasons have been one of the so much powerful symbols of financial improvement for far of the 20 th century. Of overdue they've got turn into a lightning rod for demanding situations to this imaginative and prescient of improvement as anything deliberate by means of elites with scant regard for environmental and social consequences—especially for the populations which are displaced as their homelands are flooded. during this ebook, Sanjeev Khagram strains alterations in our rules of what constitutes acceptable improvement during the moving transnational dynamics of huge dam construction.

Khagram tells the tale of a starting to be, yet contentious, global society that includes novel and more and more efficacious norms of acceptable habit in such components as human rights and environmental defense. The transnational coalitions and networks led through nongovernmental teams that espouse such norms could appear susceptible compared to states, businesses, and such overseas companies because the global financial institution. but they grew to become more and more powerful at changing the guidelines and practices of those traditionally extra strong actors and firms from the Nineteen Seventies on.

Khagram develops those claims in a close ethnographic account of the transnational struggles round the Narmada River Valley Dam initiatives in important India, a massive advanced of thirty huge and greater than 3 thousand small dams. He deals additional substantiation via a comparative historic research of the political economic system of huge dam tasks in India, Brazil, South Africa, and China in addition to by means of studying the altering habit of overseas businesses and international businesses. the writer concludes with a dialogue of the realm fee on Dams, an leading edge try out within the overdue Nineties to generate new norms between conflicting stakeholders.

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4). The latter cases are less conducive to the formation of transnational linkages among domestic and foreign actors or to the adoption of globalizing norms and principles. Because they are by definition based on the rule of law, democracies, to the contrary, increase the potential impact of globalizing norms once they have been adopted domestically. 89 Why the levels of domestic social mobilization and advocacy might be stronger or weaker across contexts and/or over time depends on a variety of factors.

90 But the organization and effectiveness of such collective political action often depend more on the mobilization of those resources that are available, the existence of facilitating social networks, and the conduciveness of the prevailing political opportunity structures. 91 These factors, moreover, are increasingly shaped by and shape the transnational linkages of domestic actors, as well as the global spread and institutionalization of norms on the environment, indigenous peoples, human rights, among others.

87 This is partly because state institutions and governmental practices are also conditioned by domestic actors, interactions, and processes: relations between dominant classes and class coalitions, self-interested actions of political elites, inter-ethnic relations, or waves of social mobilization by subaltern groups. 88 Indeed, while transnational contentious politics interacting with the global spread Transnational Struggles for Water and Power 19 and institutionalization of norms are important conditions for altering the general dynamics of development, states and other powerful actors generally have to be pressured to follow these transnational norms and principles by the mobilizing, lobbying, and monitoring activities of newly or further empowered and organized domestic and transnational actors.

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