Dairy technology : principles of milk properties and by Pieter Walstra; et al

By Pieter Walstra; et al

Describes the effective transformation of milk right into a number of items, targeting the adjustments in uncooked fabric, and intermediate and ultimate items. The ebook information the methods for making sure processing potency and product caliber. content material: Milk -- Composition, constitution, and houses -- Milk parts -- Colloidal debris of milk -- Microbiology of milk -- procedures -- common facets -- warmth remedy -- Centrifugation -- Homogenization -- focus technique -- Cooling and freezing -- Lactic fermentations -- Fouling, cleansing and disinfection -- Packing -- Milk items -- Milk for liquid intake -- Cream items -- focused milks -- Milk powder -- Protein arrangements -- Butter -- Fermented milks -- Cheese -- rules of cheese making -- method steps -- Cheese ripening and houses -- Microbial defects -- Cheese forms. summary: Describes the effective transformation of milk right into a number of items, targeting the adjustments in uncooked fabric, and intermediate and ultimate items. The booklet information the techniques for making sure processing potency and product caliber

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4. 72 For example, Holsteins in the United States and Canada. 4 Content of some components in milk as a function of season and of lactation stage. The average content is put at 100%. One division corresponds to 2%. After P. Walstra and R. Jenness, Dairy Chemistry and Physics (New York: Wiley, 1984). the same farm who calved in different seasons. Plotting the data as a function of season results in far smaller variations. This shows that lactation stage is the main variable, though it is difficult to separate the effect from that of other variables such as feeding regimen and grazing.

1 Chapter 2 Chemical structure of lactose and lactulose. tures the glycosidic linkage and produces carboxyl groups in the remaining sugars. Gentle reduction of lactose converts the aldehyde group to an alcohol group. More intense reduction cleaves the glycosidic linkage and results in the formation of alcohol groups in the remaining sugars. Hydrolysis of lactose by acid does not occur easily. If it occurs (high temperature, low pH), many other reactions take place as well. Lactose can, however, simply be hydrolyzed using the enzyme lactase (ϭβ-d-galactosidase).

SUGGESTED LITERATURE • • • • Several text and reference books exist on the topics of this chapter. The book on which we relied most is: P. Walstra and R. Jenness, Dairy Chemistry and Physics, Wiley, New York, 1984, of which a Spanish edition also exists (Quı´mica y Fı´sica Lactolo´gica, Acribia, Zaragoza, 1987). An overview of milk composition and variability of several species is given by: R. L. R. , Lactation: A Comprehensive Treatise, Vol. 3, Academic Press, New York, 1974, Chapter 1. G. , Handbook of Milk Composition, Academic Press, San Diego, 1995.

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