By Frank A. Clements
A entire A–Z research of the heritage of clash in Afghanistan from 1747 to the present.
• Over forty illustrations, together with the Buddha statues at Bamyan, Kabul; Afghanistan's tough terrain; Taliban and Mujahideen combatants; and Soviet troops
• certain maps, together with the humanitarian scenario in September 2001, provinces and significant cities, ethnolinguistic teams within the quarter, and the border with Pakistan
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Additional resources for Conflict in Afghanistan: A Historical Encyclopedia
Problems between the two countries came to the fore again in September 1947, when Iran claimed that Afghanistan’s diversion of the Helmand River had caused crop failures in the Iranian province of Sistan. Relations improved in 1956 when an air service was established between Kabul and Tehran, and this was followed on 3 December 1960 with a joint agreement on trade and transit; on 20 April 1962, a new five-year agreement was concluded. On 18 September 1961, Iran offered to mediate in a dispute between Afghanistan and Pakistan, and between 27 and 31 July 1962, representatives from Afghanistan and Pakistan met in Tehran to try to resolve the dispute over Pashtunistan.
Progress in the areas of security, dealing with the regional warlords, and reconstruction must be significant if the credibility of the Karzai government is to be established. This is also seen as critical to the success of the democratic elections, which are scheduled for 2004 under the terms of the Bonn Agreement. Until the start of planning for the elections, political parties are not recognized in Afghanistan, and a program of registration is planned to take place before the elections. However, this did not stop several small political groups and former mujahideen leaders from coming together to launch the National Democratic Front on 12 March 2003.
In May 2002, it was announced that the Iranian president, Mahmud Khatami, was to visit Afghanistan on 8 and 9 June, prior to the holding of the Loya Jirga (Great Council); he hoped to build on the personal relationship he had established with Afghan president Hamid Karzai during the latter’s visit to Tehran in February 2002. Karzai has had to tread a narrow path in order to improve relations with Iran without upsetting the United States, as both nations are critical to Afghanistan’s stability. S.