By T R Crompton
This e-book brings jointly in a single position all to be had info at the choice of metals, organics, organometallic compounds, anions, cations, dissolved gases, radioactive components and miscellaneous determinands in ordinary and taken care of waters.
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Additional resources for Comprehensive Water Analysis
Typical recorder tracings for the determination of 1 and 0·03 µ g l−1 mixtures of inorganic mercury and methyl mercury chloride and a blank are shown in fig. 7. In fig. 7(b) and (c), a small narrow peak (<0·005 POTABLE WATERS 39 AU) appears at the time of injection of both reducing agents. This results from minutely varying gas flows as syringe needles are inserted and removed and solution is sprayed onto the frit and the injection peak is readily distinguished from the mercury peaks because of its immediate response.
They eliminated this interference by coprecipitating lead with manganese and nitric acid and the evolved plumbane analysed by an automated hydride-atomic absorption method. In Table 9 are reported results on potable water samples obtained by this technique, also by direct injection atomic absorption spectroscopy, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy, and differential pulse anodic scanning voltammetry. The graphite furnace method employed did not allow for matrix TABLE 9 Determination of lead in drinking water by four methods (µ g/l) Graphite furnace atomic absorption Differential pulse anodic scanning spectrometry voltammetry Sample Atomic absorption spectrometry Hydride atomic absorption spectrometry As received Co-precipitated As received Digested with nitric acid 1 2 49 35 38 44 54 30 45 27 55 33 64 41 POTABLE WATERS 33 Graphite furnace atomic absorption Differential pulse anodic scanning spectrometry voltammetry Sample Atomic absorption spectrometry Hydride atomic absorption spectrometry As received Co-precipitated As received Digested with nitric acid 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 80 78 75 166 567 14 117 10 416 90 155 348 37 102 35 8 31 31 116 155 48 60 48 124 201 39 58 33 171 38 76 132 25 53 33 5 24 14 56 54 54 88 110 168 565 12 111 12 392 73 141 304 35 105 30 8 32 20 120 120 50 48 57 153 498 9 88 7 380 75 126 277 26 88 21 6 28 17 101 106 54 60 75 210 482 14 101 9 450 89 155 370 31 116 33 8 39 21 130 150 69 67 76 184 539 14 118 10 462 82 130 344 34 113 40 8 42 32 142 140 interference and this is seen in the poor agreement of lead contents obtained between this and the other methods.
Down to 10 µ g l−1 copper can be determined by this procedure. Ion-selective electrodes Standard addition potentiometry using a copper selective electrode has been used84 to determine copper at the µ g l−1 level in potable water. Hulanicki et al85 determined copper in potable water by means of a chalcolite copper ion selective electrode. This electrode is based on a cuprous sulphide membrane. Determinations can be carried out down to 6 µ g l−1 when the standard addition procedure is used. These workers used a TFB (tris fluoride) buffer consisting of 0·02 M tris (2-amino-2-hydroxymethyl-propanediol-1,3), 0·1 M potassium nitrate and 0·02 M potassium fluoride.