By David G. Seiler, Alain C. Diebold, Thomas J. Shaffner, Robert McDonald, W. Murray Bullis, Patrick J. Smith, Erik M. Secula
The global semiconductor group faces more and more tough demanding situations because it strikes into the producing of chips with function sizes forthcoming a hundred nm. many of the demanding situations are materials-related, reminiscent of transistors with high-k dielectrics and on-chip interconnects made of copper and low-k dielectrics. The value of those demanding situations calls for distinct recognition from these within the metrology and analytical measurements group. Characterization and metrology are key enablers for constructing semiconductor approach know-how and in enhancing manufacturing.This ebook summarizes significant matters and offers serious stories of significant dimension innovations which are an important to proceed the advances in semiconductor expertise. It covers significant facets of the method know-how and so much characterization innovations for silicon study, together with improvement, production, and diagnostics.It presents a concise and potent portrayal of characterization wishes and a few of the issues that has to be addressed via undefined, academia, and executive to proceed the dramatic development in semiconductor expertise. It additionally presents a foundation for exciting useful views and new rules for examine and improvement.
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Extra info for Characterization and Metrology for ULSI Technology 2000: International Conference (AIP Conference Proceedings)
23. The Tx tetrahedral interstitial position in the RX zinc-blende lattice. , the electron levels are filled so that it looks like a noble gas atom; we presume that such an interstitial would occupy an unbonded interstitial site and would migrate rather readily through the lattice. In the event that the interstitial undergoes bonding with the lattice, we must expect bonded interstitials as in the diamond lattice. , if the bond-center atom is an R atom, its neighbors would be an X and an R atom and equivalently Fig.
Displacement damage probability P versus atom recoil energy T. (a) Isotropic well. (b) Linear probability rising from zero at Ta - Ll to unity at Ta + Ll. often referred to as the primary knock-on atom (PKA), can itself, if it has sufficient energy, displace other atoms by interatomic collisions. The early theories l ,l99,2ol,208-2l3 of the phenomenology of multiple-atom displacement were statistical in nature, but more recent work has included the direct modeling of the displacement damage process on computers, as we discuss in more detail in Section 7.
Results; the Lomer and Wild results are consistent with these data but they did not show the detailed annealing curves. Brosious et at. also carried out electrical resistivity measurements which correlate with the EPR results and indicate that the observed changes are not due to ionization alone but require irradiation by energetic particles and presumably therefore are due to displacement collisions. They had no EPR spectrum prior to irradiation nor was one created by ionization. 0, with the growth rate apparently following a square root of flux dependence, which they argue may indicate defect motion at liquid nitrogen temperature.