By Vladimir P. Torchilin (auth.), Vladimir Muzykantov M.D., Ph.D., Vladimir Torchilin Ph.D., D.Sc. (eds.)
Drugs frequently haven't any average affinity for the cells, tissues and organs the place healing results are wanted, which often leads to low potency and unintended effects. This obstacle is much more profound whilst utilizing hugely effective and cytotoxic anticancer medicinal drugs or particular brokers, resembling enzymes and genetic fabrics, considering their powerful and secure motion calls for distinctive mobile or perhaps sub-cellular addressing within the goal organ. to fulfill protection, potency and specificity requisites, medications one way or the other has to be designated to the websites in their anticipated healing motion. the belief of the "magic bullet," or drug focusing on, proposed via Erlich a century in the past, generates nice and constantly transforming into curiosity in biomedical, commercial and monetary circles. This ebook is targeted at the concepts designed to focus on healing or diagnostic brokers to the affliction websites. In an try to comprise during this quantity the set of chapters reflecting either conventional and rising components of drug focusing on, now we have contacted many best scientists within the box requesting their contributions. Their responses have been so much favorable and inspiring. consequently, we've got succeeded in assembling a chain of remarkable contributions reflecting essentially the entire key parts of drug focusing on. the ultimate constitution of this publication is as follows.
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Additional info for Biomedical Aspects of Drug Targeting
Rev. Biomed. Eng. 1,241-263. Biomedical Aspects ofDrug Targeting 23 12. , Twicjler, 1. and Abdullah, V. (1984) The mechanism of lip os orne accumulation in infarction. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 797, 363-368. 13. , Matsumura, Y. and Hori, K. (2000) Tumor vascular permeability and the EPR effect in macromolecular therapeutics: a review. 1. Control. Release 65, 271-284. 14. P. S. (1995) Which polymers can make nanoparticulate drug carriers long-circulating? Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 16, 141-155. 15. ) CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1995.
Exp. Schwartz (1995) Two receptor systems are involved in the plasma clearance of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) in vivo. J Clin. Walport (2001) Complement. Nussenzweig (1984) Inhibition of complement activation on the surface of cells after incorporation of decay-accelerating factor (OAF) into their membranes J Exp. Szebeni (1998) The interaction of liposomes with the complement system. Crit. Rev. Murciano (2002) Streptavidin-mediated coupling of therapeutic proteins to carrier erythrocytes.
Multimerization of Fc-fragment, as a result of formation of immune complexes, immunoconjugates, IgG aggregation or coupling to a polymer carrier, also greatly facilitates Fc-fragment mediated reactions. Therefore, immune defense mechanisms contribute generously to inactivation and elimination of drug-carrier complexes (Figure 1 below). Importantly, they also mediate many side effects of drug targeting and, therefore, are subject of serious safety concerns. BIOCOMPATIBILITY AND SIDE EFFECTS OF DRUGCARRIER COMPLEXES Targeting systems should not cause untoward activation of acute cascades as thrombosis, inflammation, toxicity and immune response.