By Günther Patzig (auth.)
The current ebook is the English model of a monograph 'Die aristotelische Syllogistik', which first seemed ten years in the past within the sequence of Abhand 1 lungen edited by way of the Academy of Sciences in Gottingen. within the preface to the English version, i'd first wish to convey my indebtedness to Mr. J. Barnes, now fellow of Oriel collage, Oxford. He not just translated what should have been a tough textual content with exemplary precision and ingenuity, yet significantly each argument and fee ed each reference. whereas translating it, he has greater the e-book. of these adjustments which i've got made on Mr. Barnes' recommendation I observe merely the extra vital ones on pages four, 12, 24sq, 32, 39, 6lsq, and 158. because the moment variation of the German textual content seemed in 1963 a few extra studies were released, or come to my discover, which i've got 2 been capable of utilize in bettering the textual content of this re-creation. i have to point out the following specially the specified serious discussions of my effects and arguments released by way of Professor W. Wieland within the Philosophische Rundschau 14 (1966), 1-27 and by means of Professor E. Scheibe in Gnomon 39 (1967), 454-64. either students, whereas agreeing with the most float and approach to my interpretation, criticise a few of my effects and disagree with a few of my arguments. it can no longer be attainable to debate those technical concerns right here with the required thoroughness.
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Extra resources for Aristotle’s Theory of the Syllogism: A Logico-Philological Study of Book A of the Prior Analytics
Has Aristotle's attribution of 'relative' necessity to the conclusion, that is to the proposition which occurs as the conclusion, more justification here where concrete terms stand in place of variables? One might at first be inclined to think so. For in these cases the premisses are no more propositional schemata than the conclusion; they are genuine propositions which contain no variables not bound by universal quantifiers (to translate into the language of formal logic) and no variables at all if we consider the wording in Aristotle's text.
For a proposition containing free variables can be asserted if we assert, and mean to assert, its universal closure. A proposition containing variables so chosen that it only turns into a 32 LOGICAL NECESSITY true proposition for certain arguments cannot be asserted unless the existential quantifier is expressly added. Thus we can say, for example, "Philosophers are men", since it is true that for all x, if x is a philosopher then x is a man. But we cannot say "Men are philosophers" - or rather to say this is to say something false - since it is only for some x that it is true that x is a man and x is a philosopher.
M. WaIlies, Berlin, 1883, p. eYO/lEV01V YV01ptl100-repoc; 0 'te KU'tT]yOpouJ,lSVOC; Kui 6 o1toKeil1evoc;, Kat on 1tp&'tov 'tij cpuaet 'to KU'ta 1tUV'toC; 'toO tv OMp UO't(j) OOC; 1tpoeipT]'tut (cf. tv ilxet. tv 1tiiau 61KUWauVT] ape'tlt. i~. The word "otlvaYOl'Ylt" occurs in Aristotle in a logical sense only in the Rhetoric (r 9, 141Oa22; B 23, 1400b26), where it means much the same as the logical proof ofa proposition. In Alexander (cf. 109,32: 'toO /ltv A 1tpOC; 'to B oilSel1iu otlvuYOl'Yl'I yive'tut) it seems rather to mean the operation of uniting, or 'leading together', the two outer terms of given premisses into a conclusion.