Ancient Europe 8000 B.C.--A.D. 1000: encyclopedia of the by Peter I. Bogucki, Pam J. Crabtree

By Peter I. Bogucki, Pam J. Crabtree

This distinctive encyclopedia is the 1st to discover the numerous peoples of early eu civilization. seen as ''barbarian'' during the lens of old Greece and Rome, those civilizations have been answerable for such accomplishments because the upward thrust of farming within the Neolithic period and the development of Stonehenge. assurance extends from prehistoric origins throughout the early center a while (8000 B.C. to A.D. one thousand) while tribal activities helped outline the tip of historic tradition and the increase of the trendy eu international. set up topically and chronologically Ancient Europe, 8000 B.C. to A.D. 1000 positive factors contain 2 hundred illustrations (including the black & white photographs, colour photographs, and line drawings); 70 maps; a chronology; index; eight-page colour inserts; cartographic endpapers; word list of key archaeological phrases and extra. (20040701)

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Indeed, it is perhaps no accident that its earliest regular use appeared in the Úne˘tice culture, around the tin-rich Erzgebirge. It has been suggested that the rich “Wessex” graves of the early second millennium in south-central England owe their wealth to their control of the rich Cornish tin of the southwest peninsular. The gold Rillaton cup, from Cornwall, tends to support such a hypothesis as it documents the accumulation of 8 It is thought that the complex societies of the Aegean and eastern Mediterranean obtained their tin from Turkey, Afghanistan, or the eastern desert of Egypt.

The Prehistory of Metallurgy in the British Isles. London: Institute of Metals 1986. ) MARK PEARCE 11 M A S T E R S O F M E T A L , 3 0 0 0 – 1 0 0 0 B . C . THE EARLY AND MIDDLE BRONZE AGES IN TEMPERATE SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE ■ The earlier part of the Bronze Age in temperate southeastern Europe (c. ) presents a confusing picture to the unwary archaeologist. Although over the years more publications have appeared in English, German, and French, many basic site reports and syntheses are only fully available in Hungarian, Romanian, Bulgarian, Serbian, or other indigenous languages.

Lead certainly improves casting, lowering the melting point of the alloy and improving its viscosity, but the main reason for its use may have been to bulk out copper in a period of metal shortage. Breton socketed axes often have high lead A N C I E N T E U R O P E T H E contents, and in Slovenia it is noticeable that different artifact types contained varying amounts of lead, axes having 6–7 percent and sickles 3–4 percent. C. onward) phases. COPPER PROCUREMENT Copper is more common in Europe than is tin, and it is likely that prehistoric miners worked outcrops that are of no economic significance today.

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