An Introduction to Crime and Crime Causation by Globokar, Julie L.; Roberson, Cliff; Winters, Robert C

By Globokar, Julie L.; Roberson, Cliff; Winters, Robert C

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Extra resources for An Introduction to Crime and Crime Causation

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After the conquest, when William the Conqueror was King of England, he decreed that all prosecution was to be conducted in the name of the king to reduce the arbitrariness of the prior system. New laws were created, and the king, the judges, and the church authorities determined the elements and the scope of criminal offenses. Judicial decisions were based on general customs, usages, and moral concepts. By the 1600s, criminal law in England was based on mandatory rules of conduct that the judges had laid down.

19 Developments in the 1800s The practice of separate punishments based on one’s social status continued to pervade criminal law in many states well into the 1800s, and became increasingly based explicitly on race, particularly in the south as a way of enforcing systems of slavery and, later, racial segregation. “Black codes” were laws that explicitly criminalized actions among black populations that did not apply to others.  . 20 At the same time, in some parts of the country and for some populations, punishment began to take other forms.

S. S. territories. The Prohibition era serves as an interesting study in the effects of criminal laws and punishment on criminals and crime. First, any time that a new action becomes criminalized, it will expand the scope of those labeled criminal, even when any given individual’s behavior remains unchanged. 4% of sentences to federal prison were for liquor law violations25—behaviors that would not have even been considered criminal ­several years prior. At the same time, the prohibition of alcohol also opened up a new black market for alcohol manufacture and sales that strengthened organized crime in the United States.

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