By Pentti O. Kettunen
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Furthermore, the areal tree density has an influence on the branching density and in that way on the knot density of the produced wood. This has an influence on the strength properties of wood, as described in Fig. 45. Due to the better light conditions in planted forests, the trees tend 53 54 Advances in Materials Science of Wood to have more branches producing wood with higher knot density (knot area ratio) than the corresponding trees in dense wild forests. In recent times, the trees in planted forests are tried to improve by trimming the growing trees during different growing stages up to definite heights of the stem.
This minimum value corresponds also to the case, where the loading force affects the fibers perpendicularly. (a) (b) Fig. 27. Influence of unidirectional glass fiber reinforcement on the Young’s moduli of polyester /1,20/: a) in axial loading in the direction of the fibers, b) in transverse loading perpendicularly to the fibers. Note the difference in the vertical scales. The subscript f refers to fibers and the subscript m to matrix. (0) refers to the initial state after reinforcement and (105) to the state after 105 hours.
As some kind of a plateau. The plateau appears most clearly under compression, but slightly or negligibly it can be seen also under tension. Fig. 28. Example of a regular, homogeneous cell structure. Axial loading can be caused by an external force in direction X1, and correspondingly transverse loading along cell walls by external forces in directions X2 and X3. The width of the plateau depends, of course, on the geometry and material of the cell structure. For example, the density and the ratio thickness of the cell wall over the width of opposite cell wall (or generally the ratio of the thickness of the cell wall to the diameter of the cell) have a strong effect on the plateau formation under a compressive loading.