By R.B. Jansen
This entire guide covers a number of features of dam know-how and gives case histories which are reviewed to illustrate ideas and strategies of proved worth. additionally, recognition is given to useful features of layout, development, operation and rehabilitation.
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Additional resources for Advanced Dam Engineering For Design Construction And Rehabilitation
1991). Particularly, erosional features, mostly hardground suites, attracted special attention of many researchers (JARVIS 1980a,b, 1992, SOUTHGATE 1986a,b, FOLLMI 1990, CARSON & CROWLEY 1993). These fabrics play a specific role for sequence stratigraphic analyses (SOUTHGATE & SHERGOLD 1991, GLENN et al. 1994, MALLINSON et al. 1994). Intervals of clastic sedimentation starvation, which are also recorded by discontinuity surfaces and corrosional fabrics, represent times of undiluted high organic deposition and can initiate phosphogenic processes.
1990). These investigations indicate that the organic matter is of a marine source and reflects intensive microbial degradation and oxidation. The latter explains the negative correlation of Corg and phosphate mineral contents. The more stable humic compounds support the results from the organic matter composition (NATHAN 1990). Biomarkers reveal mostly an algal source of the organic matter (BEIN & AMIT 1982, SANDSTROM 1986). The organic geochemistry of phosphate particles is still in its infancy and further investigations may help to develop a useful tool to determine various types of organic phosphorus sources, and to follow the degradation and oxidation processes during phosphogenesis.
U +20 +40 +60 I I J I I I I I i l 20 534S I SO4 I (% CDT) (raM) 30 Fig. 3. The relationship of t~34S and ~13C profiles to the SO42- and CO32- contents of a idealized modern soft sediment column. The schematic diagram assumes constant pH conditions and linear increasing inorganic carbon with depth (from JARVIS et al. 1994 based on MeARTHUR et al. 1986). uth Africanmaiii~(~iai&~I C3 ~B -5 v c) eo ~0 -10< ~ increasingrateof sulphatereduction -15 i i i +5 -5 +10 +15 A34S (%oCDT) +5- decreasmgE .......