By M. Hassan Kakar
This political and diplomatic historical past of overdue nineteenth-century Afghanistan and its significant ethnic teams lays naked how the floor was once laid for the emergence of Afghanistan as a countryside in addition to for the implementation of schemes of modernization.
It describes how Amir Sher ‘Ali Khan and, extra absolutely, Amir ‘Abd al-Rahman Khan for the 1st time consolidated the authority of the imperative executive on the fee of the normal self sufficient neighborhood magnates, and therefore controlled to arrange a centralized monarchical kingdom and expand its direct rule thoughout Afghanistan.
They did so within the days of what has develop into often called the good video game for the mastery of principal Asian states. even supposing the nice video game ended in the aid of Afghanistan in measurement, it additionally ended in the transparent demarcation of its limitations in keeping with foreign agreements.
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Extra resources for A Political And Diplomatic History of Afghanistan, 1863-1901 (Brill's Inner Asian Library)
As previously noted, the most important instrument of power in the hands of the government was the army. However, the army itself was organized along tribal and regional lines. Even districts were organized in this way. Likewise names which referred to region and ethnicity such as Kandaharay, Heratay, Tajik, Wardak and so forth, were widespread and emotionally charged. Amir Sher 'Ali Khan was the ﬁrst Afghan ruler to organize (or reorganize) the state or more speciﬁcally the government along relatively modern lines.
55 the british afghan war 41 al-Rahman Khan had been communicating regularly with both sides, giving the British oﬃcials the impression that he stood for a negotiated settlement, while simultaneously giving the Afghans the impression that he had come home to deliver them from the invaders. ’ Lytton knew that he opposed the family of the late amir as much as he himself did. When it became known that the sardar had established himself in Qataghan, Griﬃn sent him three separate messengers. 58 His verbal message was more speciﬁc.
The amir, thus, pardoned him, but had lost hope in him to succeed him. In 1873, the amir bypassed him as well as his full-brother, and nominated his seven-year-old son, Sardar 'Abd Allah Jan, as his heir—apparent (wali"ahd ). ”51 Sardar Mohammad Ayyub Khan ﬂed to Mashhad in Persia. Thus, the amir got rid of his troublesome sons, but he also deprived himself as well as the country of the services of the most able and dynamic members of his house. , 108. , 112. Ibid. , 160. CHAPTER TWO THE BRITISH AFGHAN WAR AND THE ACCESSION OF AMIR 'ABD AL-RAHMAN KHAN Prelude to War After Lord Edward Robert L.