A History of Modern Indonesia: c. 1300 to the Present by M. C. Ricklefs

By M. C. Ricklefs

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Extra resources for A History of Modern Indonesia: c. 1300 to the Present

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They placed Iskandar Thani's widow (Iskandar Muda's daughter) on the throne as queen Taj ul-Alarn (r. 1641-75), and carne to an agreement with Johor that henceforth each would mind its own business. Johor now entered its period of greatest influence and prosperity, for in 1641 not only was the Acehnese threat definitively removed, but Johor and the VOC also expelled the Portuguese from Malacca. Aceh entered a long period of internal disunity, and it ceased to be a significant force outside the northern tip of Sumatra.

The VOC was granted a charter by the States-General which gave it quasi-sovereign powers to enlist personnel on an oath of allegiance, wage war, build fortresses and conclude treaties throughout Asia. The personnel of the VOC in Asia were, as one would expect, not always of the highest calibre, especially in its later years. Honourable men of vision who wished to undertake hazardous careers in Asia were hard to find. Although the VOC as an organisation was Dutch, many of its personnel were not.

All of these considerations meant heavy expenses. And they would also almost inevitably lead the VOC into its catastrophic involvement in the internal affairs of the kingdoms of Java. Batavia was a major cause of the VOC's financial decline. It was also the foundation from which Dutch rule in Java would later grow, but only after much bloodshed and hardship. 4 The Rise of New States, c. 1500-1650 New Islamic states were ansmg in Indonesia when the Europeans first arrived, but much of their history is poorly documented.

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